We learn about sociolinguistic competence from the “marriage” between
sociology and linguistics. Sociolinguistics helps us become more aware that the
existence of the line “We cannot buy class” calls for a substantial knowledge of words
and wisdom of the abstracts.
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modelling them.
This Study Guide in Introduction to Linguistics deals with the different Subfields of Linguistics (particularly Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics) and Related Fields. The images presented in Figures 1-15 provide some insights to facilitate the students’ imagination and creativity that can very well help enhance their English vocabulary. The Midterm and Final exams require the students to reinforce their learning through thorough and extra reading on the topics presented in each unit. The Exercises as well as the Assessments can trigger the students to practice, reinforce, and discover the wonders of exploring the English language as they face the challenges to be at pace with the modern world of words.
Cognitive science is a highly interdisciplinary field of scientific study of the human mind and its structure, processes, and complexities. As it pertains to cognition, it combines the ideas and methods from other disciplines related to intelligence and behavior which include psychology, education, artificial intelligence, anthropology, sociology, neuroscience, computer science, computational linguistics, philosophy, and linguistics in general. Cognitive science basically focuses on how the human mind works with regard to language acquisition, memory, perception, and other forms and contents characterizing the nature of human knowledge beyond preferences and biases. Psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science being a combination of psychology and linguistics
Roger Barnard was born in Brighton, and decided as a boy that he wanted to live and work abroad. Starting out as a high school teacher, he subsequently worked in English language education (ELE) and applied linguistics in Europe, the Middle East, New Zealand and Asia. Over a career spanning 50 years, he has been a language teacher, director of language institutes, curriculum adviser to ministries of education, prolific contributor to, and editor of, journals and books, and a professor of applied linguistics. This book is his personal history and the story he tells is intrinsically interesting, but it also constitutes a wide-ranging and critical review of the field of second language education over the past fifty years – how some aspects will continue to challenge academics and practitioners in future years. Such issues include: Communicative Language Teaching; English for young learners; the commercialisation of ELE; technological developments in ELE; the professional development of English language teachers; ‘nativespeakerism’; linguistic imperialism and language planning; and English as the medium of instruction. Many readers who are involved in language education will be able to relate these issues to their own context and career trajectories.
Asilo da Infância Desvalida da Horta [Asylum for the Disadvantaged Childhood of Horta], located in the city of Horta, Faial island, in the Azores, Portugal, was established in 1858 and operated under this name until 1971. Its central goal was to assist female children and young women in a situation of extreme poverty and neglect. At the time of the monarchy in Portugal, the 1860 Statutes and the 1876 Regulation provided the normative guidelines for the functioning of Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta. After the republic was established in Portugal, in 1910, the 1912 Statutes started to normatively guide the institution’s operation. While it is interesting and useful to compare the different documents that, contrary to what might be expected by this transformation of the political regime, this legal framework does not demonstrate, however, a profound change in this formal dimension.
The traditional and informal sector was expected to disappear as the modern or formal sector grew and absorbed more labour in enhancing economic growth and development. But contrary to expectations, the informal sector and informal employment has continued to be a significant factor in our modern world gaining predominance (ILO, 2012; ILO, 2014). Many countries have not been able to develop a modern economy capable of providing adequate employment opportunities for their rapidly growing populations. With 53% of new employment generated in 2014, Nigeria’s informal sector, constituted by over 17 million businesses and enterprises, which led to the growth in total job creation within the period reflecting the significant contribution of that segment to the labour market and the overall economy (NBS, 2015). The informal sector remains a major source of employment, income generation and expansion of small and medium businesses in many countries of the world in which Nigeria is not an exemption. The informal sector consists of own account or small and medium enterprises with little or no formal organization or capital, and with casual employment.
When we talk about anthropological linguistics, the first thing we have in mind is the term “anthropology” aside from linguistics, of course. If we dwell on this “anthropology” term, what we have in mind is the word “culture”. Now, just what do we mean by “anthropology”? Yes, we know that you can immediately have a Google search for the answer. For the time being, we will settle on anthropology as the scientific study of man and lower animals. However, for our subject in Anthropological Linguistics, we’ll just focus on humanity, that is, about us being human. If we add culture to our being human, we’ll be humane, and this is very important. So let’s settle with this: Anthropological Linguistics is a subfield of Linguistics that deals with language in the anthropological point of view. This differs from Linguistic Anthropology which is a subfield of Anthropology along with Cultural Anthropology (or Ethnology), Social Anthropology, and Psychological Anthropology . We need not define what “Linguistics” is (scientific study of language) by the way, so we go directly to the marriage between the two: Anthropology + Linguistics = Anthropological Linguistics. Hey, for the record, though many “cultured” people would think of “Anthropological Linguistics” same as “Linguistic Anthropology”, we still maintain that they’re in a way different as “emotion” differs from “feelings”. For the sake of discussion, the first one (anthropological linguistics) describes “linguistics” as anthropological. The second one (linguistic anthropology) describes “anthropology” as linguistic. When personalities major in English (language), and not 10 anthropology, they settle for Anthropological Linguistics. Nevertheless, they are not to disregard “linguistic anthropology” right away because it is still linguistics. Well then, note that it is not a choice between a person who looks like a monkey and a monkey that looks like a person. We’re talking about the same person in two different attires at one time and another. It’s also like dealing with the difference between “Psychology of Language” and “Psycholinguistics”. Ever wonder what’s the “first love” of “Linguistics” before marrying “Anthropology” to have this “Anthropological Linguistics” union? It’s culture. Yes, we cannot just say “Cultural Linguistics” because we know for a fact that “culture” is also present in some other “married” disciplines like sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics
This Undergraduate Thesis Study Guide aims to check or monitor students’ knowledge about Thesis Writing. Students are advised to finish reading this Study Guide the soonest time possible for in Unit 1 Part B, they are required to submit the first draft of their completed research study. This is to give them ample time for revisions and some other updates. Moreover, this Study Guide serves as a continuation to the Language Research Methodology Study Guide where the required output is a Thesis Outline.you have to write what it is you are studying, what is its importance, what do you know about its background, and how will it advance our knowledge. If you believe that there’s something about first impression, you better make good in your writing the introduction. Check the logic of your argument, your language register or style, the overall makeup of your paper, and of course, the validity of your findings and the soundness of your conclusions. Make your introduction concise, precise, and analytical for the readers to become interested to read your research paper.
Literature serves many functions in the society. As a mirror of the society, it gives an image of that society, which may be true or distorted, either in reality or perceived as distorted by the society as a whole. As a lamp, literature helps us to imagine alternative realities or new pathways in which we may walk. George Orwell’s 1984, a prognostication of governments’ intrusion into citizen’s privacy has become a reality in our day: with the emergence of the “Internet of Things”, Orwell’s Big Brother is now truly watching us. Against the backdrop of literary imagination becoming scientific reality, this paper investigates how nanotechnology has been and is being imagined in literature. 120 works of fiction in different media: movies and movie series, novel, comics/other media, cartoon, computer games, short story, are analysed to provide answers to the following questions: is nanotechnology imagined as a force for good or evil? How legitimate are these “prognostications” in the light of current realities? Literary conceptualizations of nanotechnology are ambivalent at best, and horrifying at the worst. This leads us to conclude that the prospects of nanotechnology give us a cause to pause.