Literature, Language and Culture

A literary language is the form (register) of a language used in written literature, which can be either a nonstandard dialect or a standardized variety of the language. Literary language sometimes is noticeably different from the spoken language (lects), but the difference between literary language and non-literary language is greater in some languages; thus a great divergence between a written form and a spoken vernacular, the language exhibits diglossia, a community’s uses two forms of speech.

Behavioral and Preventive Pediatrics

Behavioral and Preventive Pediatrics

Parents play a key role in a child’s physical, mental, emotional, social, and psychological well-being. Parents give shape to the child’s personality and it solely depends on Parenting style or the way they brought up their children.

The Psychology of Language Study Guide

The Psychology of Language Study Guide

The psychology of language deals with the cognitive functions which include perception, memory, thinking, volition, emotion, and behavior. It focuses on the three acts of mental processes: language comprehension, language production, and language acquisition. The psychological study of language dealing with the relationship between the linguistic behavior and psychological processes is called psycholinguistics. Perception has something to do with our senses while memory talks about storing, retaining, and retrieval of information. Meanwhile, there are many types of thinking such as perceptual or concrete, conceptual or abstract, reflective, creative, critical, and non-directive or associative thinking. Volition serves as the initial stage of will. Emotion and feeling are often used interchangeably. What separates them from each other is time. Behavior exhibits with some kind of a discipline, manners, etiquettes, and personality. Finally, language comprehension deals with language perception, word knowledge, figurative language, and pragmatics. A glimpse of some psycholinguistic 25 terms is also included in this unit. Of course, the skits (Skit 1-8) articulated the psychological viewpoints of the topics presented.

Scientific Research and Dissemination

Scientific Research and Dissemination

By understanding reality in a rigorous and controlled way, scientific knowledge – always subject to discussion and, if necessary, reformulation – is critical to provide tools that may contribute to sustainable development. Scientific knowledge entails two critical dimensions: the process of conducting research and the dissemination of its product, which is materialised in the results obtained, which are at the base of this book. This publication presents, thus, a collection of some published articles as contributions to the analysis of vital elements present in social sciences in the contemporary world. Among these contributions, the following stand out: digital literacy; reading on scrolling text; writing in science; the internship report; argumentation, photography in research; interdisciplinarity; ethics and informed consent; scholarly publications and the role of both the academic editor and preprints; social media and online visibility; electronic slideshow presentations; and virtual and face-to-face academic conferences.

Being and Existence: An Anthropocentric Metaphysics and Poetry

Being and Existence: An Anthropocentric Metaphysics and Poetry

Being and Existence is, in this work, examined from, unpopular combination of philosophical doctrines that would have, as western humanists had perceived them, remained disparate concepts in the world dominated by materialism, science and theory. Similarly, anthropocentric metaphysics is a voluptuous and amorphous amalgam of notions whose meanings are consistent and unified as a whole in the extent African cosmography but which in the Western philosophy are different schools and thoughts with often contradictory nuances and meanings. The basic keywords in his work, though of different histories, are therefore integrated into a whole here to answer to the pertinent question of being and Existence spanning from before life, to life-hereafter which burden explanation resides in anthropocentricism and metaphysics of life and death.

Political Elites and Ethnic Politics

Political Elites and Ethnic Politics

This book presents an examination on the significance of the political elites’ role in the expansion of ethnic politics to the periphery state of Sabah in Malaysia. Ethnicity in Sabah for generations did not have the significance that it held in the peninsular states, where colonial and post-colonial policies entrenched a sense of indigenous claims by the Malays against other ethnic communities of Chinese and Indians. In Sabah, especially before the Federation of Malaysia, social identity focused more on smaller social groups who needed to find non-ethnic basis for political solidarity rather than construct ethnic differences. Nevertheless, after decades in the federation of Malaysia the political solidarity in this territory became more focused on what Tajfel and Turner (1979) calls ‘us’ versus ‘them’, an activity of constructing and reconstructing ethnic difference as in West Malaysia. The study in which this book is based is explores and explains the reason why ethnic hostilities have more recently become a marker of political activities in Sabah.

Second Language Teaching: A Study Guide

Second Language Teaching: A Study Guide

Module 1 explores on the approaches, methods, and strategies in Second Language Teaching (SLT) or English Language Teaching (ELT). It introduces some modern trends in education, Internet links for learning and teaching the English language, innovative learning strategies, and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences. It also discusses some overviews on listening, speaking, and reading. The Learning Tasks/Activities include discussion on the Principles of Second Language Acquisition (SLA), speech production, text analysis, translation, IQ, EQ, and classroom environment (then and now). Figures that serve as abstract yet concrete platforms for further ELT studies have mindboggling titles such as the following: Thoughts and Words, Melody and Rhythm, Arts and Research, Watch and Listen, Lights and Colors, Then and Now, Programs and Development, and Life and Leisure. Assessments require the students to submit a picture dictionary and a PowerPoint presentation.

Effect of tillage and plant management on the productivity of different provenances of Jatropha curcasL. in Bargny (Senegal)

Effect of tillage and plant management on the productivity of different provenances of Jatropha curcasL. in Bargny (Senegal)

Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is an oleaginous species whose oil can serve as biofuel. This research aimed to study the effects of sub soiling and tree management on the performances of different JCL provenances but also the effect of fruits maturity stage on the oil content and oil quality of their seeds. Four factors (sub soiling, tree management intensity, fruit maturity stage and seeds origins or provenances) were studied. The results have shown a significant effect of all factors (p < 0.05) on JCL growth, branching, and on JCL seed oil content and quality. Tree management favored twigs and fruits production. Besides, dried seeds of yellow fruits gave a higher oil content (30.21g) and viscosity (35.37 ± 0.10 cSt) than those obtained from black fruits (23.45g and 35.285 ± 0.10 cSt, respectively) or from green fruits (17.771g et 35.08 ± 0.10 cSt). So we noticed that tree management increases branching pattern of JCL plants and consequently fruit production and that the yellow fruit stage constitutes the optimal maturity period for higher seed oil content.

All My Yesterdays A Professional Life In English Language Education

All My Yesterdays A Professional Life In English Language Education

Roger Barnard was born in Brighton, and decided as a boy that he wanted to live and work abroad. Starting out as a high school teacher, he subsequently worked in English language education (ELE) and applied linguistics in Europe, the Middle East, New Zealand and Asia. Over a career spanning 50 years, he has been a language teacher, director of language institutes, curriculum adviser to ministries of education, prolific contributor to, and editor of, journals and books, and a professor of applied linguistics. This book is his personal history and the story he tells is intrinsically interesting, but it also constitutes a wide-ranging and critical review of the field of second language education over the past fifty years – how some aspects will continue to challenge academics and practitioners in future years. Such issues include: Communicative Language Teaching; English for young learners; the commercialisation of ELE; technological developments in ELE; the professional development of English language teachers; ‘nativespeakerism’; linguistic imperialism and language planning; and English as the medium of instruction. Many readers who are involved in language education will be able to relate these issues to their own context and career trajectories.

Education of Youth in Sub-Saharan Nations Challenges and Opportunities

Education of Youth in Sub-Saharan Nations Challenges and Opportunities

Education not rooted on disparity in culture and languages could leave outside the educational process a large part of the population. A minority is able to get education in a foreign language English, French or Portuguese not related to the local culture and environment. In 2020, 63.5 percent of children in Sub Saharan Africa are multi-dimensionally poor. Children’s malnutrition, child labor, children poverty, children’s brutality, and children’s illnesses forestall them to realize their maximum potential. Economic development relies upon the potential of youths. Poverty, malnutrition, forced labor, illnesses and physical as well as emotional abuse are obstacles to children education and economic development. We analyze in this book the conditions preventing from children in SSA to get education and propose a policy improve their chances to live their child and adolescent life in good conditions.

Educação e Religião numa Cultura Organizacional Education and Religion in an Organizational Culture

Educação e Religião numa Cultura Organizacional Education and Religion in an Organizational Culture

The relationship in organizations between education and religion can be highly interwoven. This book highlights the interrelationship between the educational and shelter organization for disadvantaged female children and youth, Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta [Asylum of the Disadvantaged Children of Horta], Faial, the Azores, Portugal, and the entrance of the Religious Sisters of Congregação das Irmãs Franciscanas Hospitaleiras da Imaculada Conceição [Congregation of the Hospitaller Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Conception]. The book concludes with the presentation, in digital facsimile, of the 1933 Statutes and the Contract between the Asylum Board of Directors and the Religious Congregation established in 1932, which shaped a profound change in the organizational culture of the Asylum.