Health

Health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”. A variety of definitions have been used for different purposes over time. Health can be promoted by encouraging healthful activities, such as regular physical exercise and adequate sleep, and by reducing or avoiding unhealthful activities or situations, such as smoking or excessive stress. Some factors affecting health are due to individual choices, such as whether to engage in a high-risk behavior, while others are due to structural causes, such as whether the society is arranged in a way that makes it easier or harder for people to get necessary healthcare services. Still other factors are beyond both individual and group choices, such as genetic disorders.

Clinical Profile Of Refractory Heart Failure And Its Outcome In Rural Institutional Setup

Clinical Profile Of Refractory Heart Failure And Its Outcome In Rural Institutional Setup

Heart Failure (HF) is a “clinical syndrome characterized by the inability of systemic perfusion to meet the body’s metabolic demands and is usually caused by cardiac pump dysfunction. HF is subdivided into systolic and diastolic HF. Systolic failure presents reduced cardiac contractility whereas diastolic failure exhibits impaired cardiac relaxation with abnormal ventricular filling.” HF is a result of many functional or structural discorders. They can be acquired or congenital that eventually weakens the capacity of the ventricles eject blood. (1) It is a leading cause of repeated emergency department visits and admissions across the globe. HF has become an epidemic in developed world due to advent of modern treatment protocols and increased survival in patients with CAD (CAD). Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the leading cause of HF and subsequent admissions in developing countries. (2) In India, HF constitutes a significant part of health problems with an in-hospital mortality of 20%–30% approximately. Lack of adherence to medication and poor tolerance to guidelines based treatment is the main reason behind it. (3) Most common cause of HF is CAD, hypertension, RHD, and other conditions like cardiomyopathies, endocarditis, myocarditis and congenital heart disease. (4) Elderly are primarily affected age group with an approximate incidence of 10/1000 population after 65 years of age. Near about 80% patients admitted for HF are 65 years old or above.

Psycholinguistics Study Guide

Psycholinguistics Study Guide

Cognitive science is a highly interdisciplinary field of scientific study of the human mind and its structure, processes, and complexities. As it pertains to cognition, it combines the ideas and methods from other disciplines related to intelligence and behavior which include psychology, education, artificial intelligence, anthropology, sociology, neuroscience, computer science, computational linguistics, philosophy, and linguistics in general. Cognitive science basically focuses on how the human mind works with regard to language acquisition, memory, perception, and other forms and contents characterizing the nature of human knowledge beyond preferences and biases. Psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science being a combination of psychology and linguistics

Hypercomplementemia

Hypercomplementemia

The complement system is formed form a group of sera of plasma proteins found in fresh vertebrate sera. The number of these components are ranging between 30-40 components with their own receptors. Such components appeared in vertebrate at electrophoro-grames in the arcs of alpha1 , alpha2 , beta and gamma globulins. Through , components differs from immunological characteristics. Components protein are heat labile at 56c for half an hour. Complement can be activated in sequential manner of their own component with marked subunit assembly & functional units help in phagocytosis and cell lysis components system has fluid and membrane phases and a activated in three steps initiators, amplification and membrane attack. The activation is established in three pathways ; the classical , the properidin and the lectin pathways. Properidin is found in natural immunity , classical and lectin in the adaptive immunity .

Diagnostic De Base Pour La Promotion De La Chaine De Valeur Du Mais Au Burkina Faso

Diagnostic De Base Pour La Promotion De La Chaine De Valeur Du Mais Au Burkina Faso

Le maïs constitue actuellement la première culture la plus importante dans le monde, avec une production estimée à plus de milliards de tonnes (FAO, 2015). Les pays en développement représentent 58% des zones maïsicoles mondiales et, 37% de la production mondiale de cette céréale (FAO, 2015). Les États-Unis sont de loin le plus gros producteur de maïs avec 522 millions de tonnes en 2013 (FAO, 2014). En termes d’utilisation, le maïs est une denrée de consommation de base pour une partie importante de la population mondiale. Il constitue un complément alimentaire pour des millions d’autres personnes et est également réservé à l’usage industriel et aux aliments pour bétails. La consommation mondiale de maïs semble s’accélérer, « principalement sous l’effet de la hausse de la demande dans les PED (principalement la Chine et le Mexique), et plus récemment en raison de l’utilisation croissante du maïs dans la production d’éthanol aux États-Unis ». Au niveau du Burkina Faso, le maïs occupe une place de plus en plus importante dans la production céréalière et connait un engouement croissant de la part des acteurs. En effet, longtemps classé troisième culture après le sorgho et le mil, le maïs est depuis 2011, la deuxième culture céréalière en termes de volume de production, avec une part de la production passant de moins de 20% à 32% environ de la production céréalière totale entre 2001 et 2012 (DGESS, 2013). La production actuelle dépasse un million de tonne avec des rendements moyens de 3,7 tonnes en irrigué et 1,5 tonnes en pluviale. Cette croissance est due à l’effet des politiques de promotion d’extension des surfaces emblavées en maïs en conjugaison avec l’amélioration des rendements, rendue possible par l’utilisation des fertilisants chimiques mais également par la mise à disposition de variétés améliorées par la recherche agricole.

Language Research Methodology: Study Guide

Language Research Methodology: Study Guide

The word “research” is associated with scientific process and is tied up with writing a thesis or dissertation. It’s just that the term “research” is considered generic compared to “thesis” which sounds so academic. In layman’s term, when we do a research, we tend to go to some sources (tangible or intangible) to find a solution to a problem or to know more about a certain thing. We do some observations, readings, interviews, or even resort to something considered supernatural. We know that in the academe, we can’t begin our research without a problem. “My problem is that I do not have a problem” is always the problem of a student of a research course (Thesis Writing). How will you go about making a thesis outline if you’re not that interested to find one more problem “added to your cart” because you’ve got enough problems already? One more thing, you enrolled in this course because you’re required to do so for you to graduate, right? Because of this, you’re “forced” to find or make a statement of the problem to proceed then move on. First you gotta do is to convert the word “forced” to “inspired”. Some of you are into reading novels, blogs, or what is in the WattPad, I suppose. Of course, it’s a fact that writers couldn’t write if they don’t have something inside their heart (okay, head). You cannot share what you don’t have, remember that. Do you have something inside there to share to the universe? Granting that you have it, is it enough for you to proceed to writing your thesis outline? No? Of course, common sense dictates that writing a thesis outline is different from writing a novel or post a blog. That’s it, writing your thesis outline starts from being inspired to using your common sense and viceversa. If you don’t have any inspiration, make one. However, research writing is more than just dealing with common sense (this is basic, master it) and having an inspiration (find your strength in love). What then is it? It’s for you to discover. One thing for sure, you have to study about something essential so that you will have something to write in the “Significance of the Study” section in Chapter 1(Introduction). Since you’re dealing with something essential, you have to pass across borders. There you have it!

Social Accountability and Improvement of Health Services in Zimbabwe: The Case of Shamva District

Social Accountability and Improvement of Health Services in Zimbabwe: The Case of Shamva District

The study examined the nexus between social accountability and the improvement of the quality of the health services in Shamva District. Its objectives were to determine the social accountability strategies used by Civic Society Organizations (CSOs) in Shamva District to build capacity for citizens to demand their health rights and entitlements; explore the extent to which the state responds to accountability demands for health services tabled by the citizens; assess the capacity level of both the rural citizens and state to conduct deliberate dialogue on health service provisions; and analyse the impact of social accountability mechanisms on rural health services in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by the interpretive paradigm. It was based on qualitative methodology utilising semistructured interviews, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews with key informants and participant observation. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory, assisted by the NVivo qualitative software. The four themes that emerged were social accountability strategies used to empower citizens; state responsiveness to accountability demands; capacity level to conduct deliberative dialogue; and impact of social accountability mechanisms. The study found out three social accountability strategies utilised in Shamva District. These were community scorecard; results-based financing: and village worker model. The study concluded that continuous funding and sustainable plans are essential for improving service delivery in health using social accountability strategies. The study recommends the Government of Zimbabwe to provide adequate human, financial and physical resources for the successful implementation of social accountability in Shamva District health sector.

Interatomic Interactions in the Structures of Intermetallic Compounds.: binary compounds

Interatomic Interactions in the Structures of Intermetallic Compounds.: binary compounds

Interaction is a mutual action that cannot be separated from the characteristics of the objects participating in the process. Interaction is a process that is characterized by a simultaneous mutual change in the characteristics of interacting material objects (in our case, atoms). These material objects (atoms) act on each other with different intensity, obeying certain laws, and reproduce new structures with high accuracy. Chemical bonding is a consequence of interatomic interactions. Interatomic interactions are accompanied by thermal effects and changes in the volumes of interacting objects. Reproductive structures indicate the existence of constitutional characteristics of interacting objects. One of these characteristics is the weight concentrated in nucleons, and the second is the volume formed by the electron clouds around the nucleons. During chemical interactions, the mass concentrated in nucleons remains unchanged, and the resulting volume changes, decreasing (most often) or increasing. By the relative change in volume, as well as by thermal effects, one can judge the intensity of the interaction. Changes in the structure without changing the chemical composition occurs due to changes in the vibrations of structural units and the dissipation of energy contained in the original system into the environment [1]. With an increase in temperature (an increase in energy content), the structures dissipate. With a decrease in temperature (decrease in energy content), energy dissipation occurs. Having a crystalline system with large crystals of only one phase, without changing the chemical composition, methods of pressure, forging, laser treatment can bring the system into a state with crushed and even amorphous parts [2]. The result is a system with a high stored energy content and a dissipated structure. The fundamental characteristic of a simple substance is the molar volume, which is the ratio of the molar mass of a substance (M g/mole) to its density (d g/cm3 ) Vm=M/d (cm3 /mole) [3]. Even Lothar Meyer [4] presented a graphical dependence of atomic volumes on the mass of an atom, which was successfully illustrated by the periodic law of D.I. Mendeleev. Density is a complex characteristic, representing the ratio of one unchanged constitutional quantity (mass) to another constitutional quantity (volume), which changes depending on the environment by other atoms [5, 6].

Economic Pathology; A Research into its General Principle and Clinical Cases

Economic Pathology; A Research into its General Principle and Clinical Cases

It is very strange that there is no trace of economic pathology in economics which regards the economy as an organism. As even a human body, an excellent organism, occasionally gets sick, the economy, an organism, also gets occasionally an economic disease. Rather the economy gets sick more often in the life cycle of the economy than that of a human body since the organic function of the former is inferior to that of the latter, needless to say the immune system. The economic pathology should have been established and advanced already as the pathology has been done for human body. Indeed, the pathology for human body is developed more than its physiology and divided several parts which also have advanced in depth and diversity. So, there is no reason that the economic pathology is neglected in economics of which theoretical system is alike that of physiology. Indeed, economics has got its birth and development affected directly by the natural science. In the late 18th century when the modern economics was established as an academic discipline, the natural science was in the limelight and its organic approach was naturally introduced into economics, which is proved by the fact that the theoretical systems of all the economic schools have been established organically, and the development of economics is closely related to that of natural science. So, this organic approach is common for all the schools such as neoclassical economics, Marxian economics, Keynesian economics, institutional economics, historical economics, behavioral economics, complex economics, and so on.

Qualitative study for schizophrenia patients and CBT

Qualitative study for schizophrenia patients and CBT

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that impacts how a person acts, thinks, and perceives the world (Coyle, 2017). It is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, and diminished emotional expression (Shenton et al., 1992). The cause of these symptoms has been attributed to a dysregulation of dopaminergic signalling (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia is considered amongst the top common disorders in the world (Mathers et al., 2006), as about 1% of the general population suffer from schizophrenia (Simeone et al., 2015). Schizophrenia generally appears in late teens or early adulthood. However, it may also appear in middle ages (Kirkbride et al., 2006). Generally, the early onset of schizophrenia is associated with severe positive and negative symptoms (Galletly et al., 2016). Schizophrenia was found to be more severe and more common in men than in women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2008). Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that can be managed effectively with due care and management principles, in addition to antipsychotics medications. However, the likelihood of recovery is the highest, when schizophrenia is diagnosed and treated at its onset (Galletly et al., 2016). With medications and non-pharmacological therapy, many individuals with schizophrenia can live independently and have a satisfactory life.

Pengaruh Aspuan Lipid-Protein Dan Polimorfisme Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (Shbg) Terhadap Kadar Shbg Pada Pria Indonesia Dan Kaukasia

Pengaruh Aspuan Lipid-Protein Dan Polimorfisme Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (Shbg) Terhadap Kadar Shbg Pada Pria Indonesia Dan Kaukasia

Tim peneliti di bagian Biologi FKUI sedang melakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan kadar Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) dan polimorfisme DNA (gen) antara pria dewasa normal pada tingkat social ekonomi rendah dibandingkan dengan tingkat social ekonomi menengah/tinggi. Hingga sekarang belum diketahui apakah faktor nutrisi (gizi) dan faktor keturunan berpengaruh terhadap kadar SHBG. Lima puluh pria Indonesia dewasa normal dari tingkat sosial ekonomi rendah dan lima puluh pria dewasa normal dari tingkat sosial ekonomi menengah/tinggi serta tiga puluh empat pria Kaukasia dewasa normal akan diikutsertakan dalam penelitian ini. Kesediaan anda sebagai relawan sangat diharapkan untuk ikut serta dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian pada kelompok monyet (Macaca fascicularis) yang diberi pakan pola barat (western diet) dan kelompok monyet yang diberi pakan pola Asia (Asian diet), dan disuntik dengan obat kontrasepsi (testosteron enantat dan depot medroksiprogesteron asetat) menunjukkan perbedaan jumlah dan mutu sperma. Monyet yang diberi pakan pola barat, memiliki jumlah dan mutu sperma yang lebih baik.