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  104. Chapter Two :History of complement system
  105. Overview ;
  106. The history of complement system starts 125 years ago. From the primordial point of till now , seven historic eras was mentioned as ; discover , biophysical characteristics , discovery of properdin pathway and discovery of lectin pathway and non-immune functional eras.
  107. Discovery Era ; 1891-1907
  108. A Heat labile factor detected in human blood that had been capable to kill bacteria and mammal as ”alexin”. Immune lysis required two factors a heat labile lytic factor ”alexin” and a heat stable factor ”sensitizer”. The humeral theory , then the term complement replaces the term ”alexin”. The writers at time believed that antibody react with complement and provides enzymatic complex heat lend to cell lysis.
  109. Complement biophysical characterization era 1911-1926 ;
  110. Complement composed of two pieces , the mid-pieces and the end piece . Complement had been inactivated by yeast , cobra venom and ammonia. Guinea pig sera restores the inactivated Complement activity C1,C2,C3 and C4 had been named as well described as protein instead of being lipoid soap complex.
  111. Revealing the characteristics of classical pathway era (1926-1958);
  112. Erythrocytes lysis had been described as single hit event using Complement. Using reconstruction assay through adding partially purified Complement to antibody specific to erythrocytes, membrane attack and lysis was absent and classical Complement pathway document .
  113. Separation ;
  114. In this era , it had been separated , purified and characterized , the Complement fraction C3,C5,C6,C7,C8 and C9. Of human beings and animal beings , WHO, communication had been modified the complement components nomenclature as ; C1,C4,C2 , C3,C5,C6,C7 ,C8 , and C9 .
  115. Discovery of Properidin pathway (1954) Pillemer , 1954 , characterize the properidn pathway of the Complement.
  116. Discovery of the lactin pathway 1959 – 1991 :
  117. Matsushi et al 1991 and others were able to uncover and characterize complement pathways.
  118. Hypercomplementemia era 1991 ;
  119. In the 1991 the workers Morgan and Walport described Hypercomplementemia first time in SLE patients .
  120. Non-immune functions era (2000-2016)
  121. Brain development , symmetric plasticity hemostasis of cell, symmetric development of optic memes and age related markers disease
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