Cognitive science is a highly interdisciplinary field of scientific study of the human mind and its structure, processes, and complexities. As it pertains to cognition, it combines the ideas and methods from other disciplines related to intelligence and behavior which include psychology, education, artificial intelligence, anthropology, sociology, neuroscience, computer science, computational linguistics, philosophy, and linguistics in general. Cognitive science basically focuses on how the human mind works with regard to language acquisition, memory, perception, and other forms and contents characterizing the nature of human knowledge beyond preferences and biases. Psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science being a combination of psychology and linguistics
Biomedicine studies theoretical aspects of medicine and puts biological and natural science concepts into practice. Biomedicine Bachelors and Masters gather knowledge from a number of related disciplines such as biochemistry, zoology, anatomy, genetics, physiology, pathology, botany, chemistry and biology.
Our present knowledge of physical phenomena distinguishes four type of fundamental forces between the physical bodies: gravitational, electromagnetic weak and strong. The gravitational and the electromagnetic forces vary in strength as the inverse square of the distance and so able to influence the state of an object even at very large distances. Gravitational is important for the existence of stars, galaxes, and planetary systems as well as for our daily life, it is of no significance in subatomic physics, being far too weak to noticeably the interaction between elementary particles. Geomagnetism is the force that acts between electrically charged particles (atoms, molecules, condensed matter). When nuclear physics developed, two new short – ranged forces joined the ranks. It is well – known that the origin of the weak interaction is associated with nuclear decay. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Chadwick, there was no longer doubt that the building block of nuclei are proton and neutron (collectively called nucleons). The discovery of the neutron may be viewed as the birth of the strong nuclear interaction: it indicated that the nuclei consists of protons and neutrons and hence the presence of a force that holds them together, strong enough to counteract the electromagnetic repulsion. In 1935 Yukawa have tried to develop a theory of nuclear forces. The most important feature Yukawa’s forces is that they have a small range ( 1015 m). The central dogma of atomic physics after Yukawa’s paper that proton – electron attraction could be explained in terms of classical electrostatic theory, while the strong force effects were essentially new and inexplicable (see, however below). So, far the best theoretical guess is the Yukawa potential, but it is a static potential not dependent on velocities of the nucleons. A static force is not a complete one because it can not explain the propagation of the nuclear interaction. Moreover, phenomenological Yukawa potential can not be directly verified experimentally. We should note that nowadays in text books and elsewhere the separation of electromagnetic and strong interaction tacitly assumed. It is very strange up to present time we do not even know the strong force very well. And what is more we have some contradiction taking into account that the forces between quarks must be long – range, because the gluons have zero mass. But the force between colorless hadrons is short – range, when the distance between hadrons is more than nuclear size. We can see that the border of the nuclear size transforms long – range interaction in the short – range one. It is very old question which up to present time has not any theoretical explanation
The study examined the nexus between social accountability and the improvement of the quality of the health services in Shamva District. Its objectives were to determine the social accountability strategies used by Civic Society Organizations (CSOs) in Shamva District to build capacity for citizens to demand their health rights and entitlements; explore the extent to which the state responds to accountability demands for health services tabled by the citizens; assess the capacity level of both the rural citizens and state to conduct deliberate dialogue on health service provisions; and analyse the impact of social accountability mechanisms on rural health services in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by the interpretive paradigm. It was based on qualitative methodology utilising semistructured interviews, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews with key informants and participant observation. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory, assisted by the NVivo qualitative software. The four themes that emerged were social accountability strategies used to empower citizens; state responsiveness to accountability demands; capacity level to conduct deliberative dialogue; and impact of social accountability mechanisms. The study found out three social accountability strategies utilised in Shamva District. These were community scorecard; results-based financing: and village worker model. The study concluded that continuous funding and sustainable plans are essential for improving service delivery in health using social accountability strategies. The study recommends the Government of Zimbabwe to provide adequate human, financial and physical resources for the successful implementation of social accountability in Shamva District health sector.
It is very strange that there is no trace of economic pathology in economics which regards the economy as an organism. As even a human body, an excellent organism, occasionally gets sick, the economy, an organism, also gets occasionally an economic disease. Rather the economy gets sick more often in the life cycle of the economy than that of a human body since the organic function of the former is inferior to that of the latter, needless to say the immune system. The economic pathology should have been established and advanced already as the pathology has been done for human body. Indeed, the pathology for human body is developed more than its physiology and divided several parts which also have advanced in depth and diversity. So, there is no reason that the economic pathology is neglected in economics of which theoretical system is alike that of physiology. Indeed, economics has got its birth and development affected directly by the natural science. In the late 18th century when the modern economics was established as an academic discipline, the natural science was in the limelight and its organic approach was naturally introduced into economics, which is proved by the fact that the theoretical systems of all the economic schools have been established organically, and the development of economics is closely related to that of natural science. So, this organic approach is common for all the schools such as neoclassical economics, Marxian economics, Keynesian economics, institutional economics, historical economics, behavioral economics, complex economics, and so on.
Cholera is a diarrheal syndrome of an infectious epidemic or pandemic nature. This syndrome expressed several epidemic and pandemic spread all over the world during sixties, seventies eighties and nineties of the twentieth century. Cholera caused by V. cholerae serotypes ,the known OI and non-OI serotypes.It seems to be that there were other entero-pathogen like entero-toxigenic Escherichia coli may express such diarrheal syndrome but with neither evident epidemicity nor form water diarrhea .The syndrome has been described as water and food born.It is considered as an enterotoxin induced in which the enterotoxin induce adenyl cyclase. The denyl cyclase in turn induced fluid accumulation in the affected patients gut leading to rice water diarrhea.Infected patient need ;fluid re-susstation ,quarantine and Tetracyclin R derivative therapy.Prove of V.cholerae pathogenicity in mice or other small animal mammals was through the application of the ligated ileal loop technic. The infection induced immunity may be antitoxic, anti-bacterial and vibriocidal antibody responses. Several vaccine makes are known to date that can be of use in facing the epidemic episodes in different world countries[ Holmgren 2021,Momba and Azab EL-Liethy 2017,Sakazaki et al 1970].
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that impacts how a person acts, thinks, and perceives the world (Coyle, 2017). It is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, and diminished emotional expression (Shenton et al., 1992). The cause of these symptoms has been attributed to a dysregulation of dopaminergic signalling (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Schizophrenia is considered amongst the top common disorders in the world (Mathers et al., 2006), as about 1% of the general population suffer from schizophrenia (Simeone et al., 2015). Schizophrenia generally appears in late teens or early adulthood. However, it may also appear in middle ages (Kirkbride et al., 2006). Generally, the early onset of schizophrenia is associated with severe positive and negative symptoms (Galletly et al., 2016). Schizophrenia was found to be more severe and more common in men than in women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2008). Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that can be managed effectively with due care and management principles, in addition to antipsychotics medications. However, the likelihood of recovery is the highest, when schizophrenia is diagnosed and treated at its onset (Galletly et al., 2016). With medications and non-pharmacological therapy, many individuals with schizophrenia can live independently and have a satisfactory life.