Hadron – Lepton Strong Interaction
By: Vladimir G. Plekhanov,
Our present knowledge of physical phenomena distinguishes four type of fundamental forces between the physical bodies: gravitational, electromagnetic weak and strong. The gravitational and the electromagnetic forces vary in strength as the inverse square of the distance and so able to influence the state of an object even at very large distances. Gravitational is important for the existence of stars, galaxes, and planetary systems as well as for our daily life, it is of no significance in subatomic physics, being far too weak to noticeably the interaction between elementary particles. Geomagnetism is the force that acts between electrically charged particles (atoms, molecules, condensed matter). When nuclear physics developed, two new short – ranged forces joined the ranks. It is well – known that the origin of the weak interaction is associated with nuclear β = decay. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Chadwick, there was no longer doubt that the building block of nuclei are proton and neutron (collectively called nucleons). The discovery of the neutron may be viewed as the birth of the strong nuclear interaction: it indicated that the nuclei consists of protons and neutrons and hence the presence of a force that holds them together, strong enough to counteract the electromagnetic repulsion. In 1935 Yukawa have tried to develop a theory of nuclear forces. The most important feature Yukawa’s forces is that they have a small range (~ 10^15 m). The central dogma of atomic physics after Yukawa’s paper that proton – electron attraction could be explained in terms of classical electrostatic theory, while the strong force effects were essentially new and inexplicable (see, however below). So, far the best theoretical guess is the Yukawa potential, but it is a static potential not dependent on velocities of the nucleons. A static force is not a complete one because it can not explain the propagation of the nuclear interaction. Moreover, phenomenological Yukawa potential can not be directly verified experimentally. We should note that nowadays in text books and elsewhere the separation of electromagnetic and strong interaction tacitly assumed. It is very strange up to present time we do not even know the strong force very well. And what is more we have some contradiction taking into account that the forces between quarks must be long – range, because the gluons have zero mass. But the force between colorless hadrons is short – range, when the distance between hadrons is more than nuclear size. We can see that the border of the nuclear size transforms long – range interaction in the short – range one. It is very old question which up to present time has not any theoretical explanation.
Obviously we should remember that all structure nucleus and nucleons are a successful experiments in scattering different particles. However performing scattering experiments would not be enough to study the laws of subatomic physics. Therefore using new methods, besides scattering, would be beneficial for such study. Recently we have shown the non – accelerator manifestation of the strong nuclear (hadron – lepton) interaction in solids and presented it in a series of international conferences on high energy physics. The present book is devoted to, firstly, experimental manifestation of the long – range nuclear strong interaction and secondly, the nuclear strong force dependence on nucleons’ distance in between. It is not for us to judge how for this goal has been achieved, we only note: foci quod potui, faciant, meliora potentes.