The psychology of language deals with the cognitive functions which include perception, memory, thinking, volition, emotion, and behavior. It focuses on the three acts of mental processes: language comprehension, language production, and language acquisition. The psychological study of language dealing with the relationship between the linguistic behavior and psychological processes is called psycholinguistics. Perception has something to do with our senses while memory talks about storing, retaining, and retrieval of information. Meanwhile, there are many types of thinking such as perceptual or concrete, conceptual or abstract, reflective, creative, critical, and non-directive or associative thinking. Volition serves as the initial stage of will. Emotion and feeling are often used interchangeably. What separates them from each other is time. Behavior exhibits with some kind of a discipline, manners, etiquettes, and personality. Finally, language comprehension deals with language perception, word knowledge, figurative language, and pragmatics. A glimpse of some psycholinguistic 25 terms is also included in this unit. Of course, the skits (Skit 1-8) articulated the psychological viewpoints of the topics presented.
Material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified based on their physical and chemical properties, or on their geological origin or biological function. Materials science is the study of materials and their applications.
Our present knowledge of physical phenomena distinguishes four type of fundamental forces between the physical bodies: gravitational, electromagnetic weak and strong. The gravitational and the electromagnetic forces vary in strength as the inverse square of the distance and so able to influence the state of an object even at very large distances. Gravitational is important for the existence of stars, galaxes, and planetary systems as well as for our daily life, it is of no significance in subatomic physics, being far too weak to noticeably the interaction between elementary particles. Geomagnetism is the force that acts between electrically charged particles (atoms, molecules, condensed matter). When nuclear physics developed, two new short – ranged forces joined the ranks. It is well – known that the origin of the weak interaction is associated with nuclear decay. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Chadwick, there was no longer doubt that the building block of nuclei are proton and neutron (collectively called nucleons). The discovery of the neutron may be viewed as the birth of the strong nuclear interaction: it indicated that the nuclei consists of protons and neutrons and hence the presence of a force that holds them together, strong enough to counteract the electromagnetic repulsion. In 1935 Yukawa have tried to develop a theory of nuclear forces. The most important feature Yukawa’s forces is that they have a small range ( 1015 m). The central dogma of atomic physics after Yukawa’s paper that proton – electron attraction could be explained in terms of classical electrostatic theory, while the strong force effects were essentially new and inexplicable (see, however below). So, far the best theoretical guess is the Yukawa potential, but it is a static potential not dependent on velocities of the nucleons. A static force is not a complete one because it can not explain the propagation of the nuclear interaction. Moreover, phenomenological Yukawa potential can not be directly verified experimentally. We should note that nowadays in text books and elsewhere the separation of electromagnetic and strong interaction tacitly assumed. It is very strange up to present time we do not even know the strong force very well. And what is more we have some contradiction taking into account that the forces between quarks must be long – range, because the gluons have zero mass. But the force between colorless hadrons is short – range, when the distance between hadrons is more than nuclear size. We can see that the border of the nuclear size transforms long – range interaction in the short – range one. It is very old question which up to present time has not any theoretical explanation
The main thrust of this study was to examine sea robbery and maritime business operations in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The Routine Activity Theory propounded in (1979) by Lawrence .E. Cohen and Marcus Felson served as the theoretical guide. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select respondents from three littoral states in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The sample size for this study was 400; this was derived using the Taro Yamane formula. Questionnaire and oral interview were used as methods of data collection. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between sea robbery and artisanal fishing, sea robbery and water transportation, sea robbery and tourism development, also sea robbery and coastal trading in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The implication is that the continuing existence of the activities of robbers in the waterways of the Niger Delta region will impact negatively on the economy of business operators as well as scare investors from investing in the region. In addition, these waterways will continue to maintain their notorious posture and ranking as dangerous waterways by the international maritime watchdogs such as the International Maritime Bureau and International Maritime Organization. Furthermore, it was concluded from the study that sea robbery is rife in the Niger Delta region because of the following criminogenic factors (a) the endowment of crude oil in the study area (b) other commercial activities which are transported by the waterways and (c) the absence of adequate surveillance. Consequent upon this, it is recommended from the study, among others, that problem oriented policing at sea robbery hotspots be adopted as a measure to guarantee safety of life and property along the waterways and creeks in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Delay has been one of the most prevalent challenges within church construction projects, especially in the orthodox churches. Despite construction challenges and project delays within most orthodox churches, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on unearthing the factors that lead to church construction delays. This quantitative study is aimed at exploring church construction delays within the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. After extensive literature and theoretical review, a proposed construct was generated with a structured questionnaire and distributed using the online survey tool, MikeCRM. Out of the 480 questionnaires distributed, 402 were completed and returned, representing a response rate of 84.8%. The questionnaires were completed by 39.3% Other Positions, 21.9% Resident Pastors/Agents, 18.9% Managers, 9.95% Project Managers, 5.90% Consultants, 1.99% Site superintendents (foreman), and 1.99% Electricians. The sample data were analysed statistically using Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, Pearson correlations, and AMOS for reliability and validity and for measuring the suitability of the proposed constructs. The study confirmed six factors as being responsible for the church construction delay with Material-related being the highest influential factor and Client/Ownerrelated as the least. The other four factors include Project-related, Quality-related, External-related, and Church Organizational Structure. The findings will help academicians, building contractors and church stakeholders with awareness of church construction delays. Theoretically, the findings will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the research area of church construction delay from the perspective of developing countries.
Regarding China’s studies, it can be categorized as classical studies, contemporary and interdisciplinary researches, but under the criticism of theoretical absence as an ‘area study’. This research relates to the social, environmental, political and economic policies, subconsciously, it is also affected by the philosophy and history for the decision made by the government and people, namely, in term of the macro-perspective, it covers the philosophy, history, social, politics, and the environment, economics, industry reform. More importantly, it integrates the macro with the microperspectives, digging into individuals’ decision under a micro-perspective, providing a comprehensive insight, where it not only has a big picture on the evolution process in the longitudinal historical spectrum, but also a micro-world on its own functional mechanism regarding the individuals’ decision making. Accordingly, it is an interdisciplinary research providing a micro insight of behaviours from the evidence of emerging industry of new energy vehicles.
Assigning a value to a pubic good is a challenge mainly due to the lack of commercial value. This type of goods, being non marketable, cannot be validated by means of supply and demand. From the other, the evaluation is necessary. A number o economical and social parameters are affected by the assigned value of a public good and in turn, they affect the price of marketable goods. This kind of parameters are taxation, management and preservation of the environment, full use of natural and social resources. The provider of the good- usually the state- have to evaluate rationally and correctly the price in monetary units to avoid loss of capital or failure to preserve and protect the good, something that might lead to the final loss of the good. It therefore necessary the development of specific methodologies that will allow the direct and relatively easy evaluation of public goods. Directness and simplicity are the mainframe for the challenge faced in the present study. The abstract nature of the majority of public goods leads, at best, to difficulties in describing benefits and costs. In the worst case, a non-expert, a simple citizen asked to pay tax for such a provision, more often than not has complete lack of awareness even for the existence of the specific good, even if he benefits from it in everyday life.
A distinctive feature of the manufacturing sector in Kenya is the co-existence of the modern sector alongside a rapidly expanding informal sector. While the formal sector comprises mainly small, medium, and large-scale enterprises (i.e., firms employing more than 100 workers), the informal sector consists of numerous open-air small and microscale productive activities in towns and rural trading centres, usually employing less than five workers. Traditional artisan production in the informal sector is dominated by small undertakings employing less than 5 workers. A large proportion of these firms’ output is directed towards satisfying needs of consumer goods and services domestically. These include items such as clothing, furniture, foodstuffs and motor vehicle repairs. While data on this sub-sector is not easy to come by, there is little doubt from casual empiricism that it is one of the fastest growing sectors, and a major source of employment in the country (Ikiara, 1991, Republic of Kenya, 2007). It is equally clear that this sector has little or no impact on Kenyan manufactured exports, due mainly to the low quality of their products.