In a teaching-learning situation, instructional materials can be authentic or real objects used as alternative channels of communication to help the teachers concretize some abstractions so they can convey vivid information to learners. Furthermore, instructional materials can define the goals, objectives, approaches, methods, strategies, and techniques of the syllabus as well as the roles of the teachers and the learners (Wright, 1987) with reference to the learning domains (cognitive, psychomotor, and affective). The rationale behind having instructional materials is that they serve as a resource for presentation, activities, stimulation, and ideas for classroom learning (Cunningsworth, 1995) as well as a platform to induce or enhance creativity. Meanwhile, Kurt (2017) defines instructional design as the creation of instructional materials, modules, or lessons. It can also be a technology to develop the learners’ experiences as well as to promote the acquisition of specific knowledge and needed skills for a certain degree program. Factors in designing instructional materials include the following: learner, context, resources and facilities, personal confidence and competence, copyright compliance, and time ((Malley, 1998). Five (5) of the most popular instructional design models are the ADDIE Model, Merrill’s Principles of Instruction, Gagne’s Events of Instructions, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Kemp Instructional Design Model. Digital learning terms include 21st Century skills, App flow, Asynchronous learning, Synchronous learning, Blended learning, among others. The exercises call for further discussions and application on the learning domains (cognitive, psychomotor, and affective); sample printed materials (flyer, leaflet, pamphlet, and brochure); factors in designing instructional materials; and design creatives. Assessment requires the students to submit a compilation of the different Projected and Non-projected instructional materials.
Pedagogy most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are imparted in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Both the theory and practice of pedagogy vary greatly, as they reflect different social, political, and cultural contexts.
This Study Guide in Introduction to Linguistics deals with the different Subfields of Linguistics (particularly Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics) and Related Fields. The images presented in Figures 1-15 provide some insights to facilitate the students’ imagination and creativity that can very well help enhance their English vocabulary. The Midterm and Final exams require the students to reinforce their learning through thorough and extra reading on the topics presented in each unit. The Exercises as well as the Assessments can trigger the students to practice, reinforce, and discover the wonders of exploring the English language as they face the challenges to be at pace with the modern world of words.
Asilo da Infância Desvalida da Horta [Asylum for the Disadvantaged Childhood of Horta], located in the city of Horta, Faial island, in the Azores, Portugal, was established in 1858 and operated under this name until 1971. Its central goal was to assist female children and young women in a situation of extreme poverty and neglect. At the time of the monarchy in Portugal, the 1860 Statutes and the 1876 Regulation provided the normative guidelines for the functioning of Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta. After the republic was established in Portugal, in 1910, the 1912 Statutes started to normatively guide the institution’s operation. While it is interesting and useful to compare the different documents that, contrary to what might be expected by this transformation of the political regime, this legal framework does not demonstrate, however, a profound change in this formal dimension.
This qualitative study aims to describe the competence of professionalism and the implications of certification in improving the professionalism of Senior High School Islamic Education teachers in Southeast Sulawesi. Data collection technique include observation, interview and relevant document. At the same time, data analysis technique is data collection, reduction, discussion and conclusion. The results showed that Islamic education teachers have a decent ability to develop their professional competencies. These capabilities include interpreting and analyzing the materials, structures, concepts, and mindsets of relevant disciplines to Islamic education. In addition, the teachers also understand standards of competency, basic competencies of subjects, learning objectives, select and manage Islamic education materials creatively. Furthermore, teachers reflect that the results are applied in developing the profession. Among other self-development activities are conducting class action research, undertaking professional subsidiary activities, reform the current knowledge and adhere to the development of information and communication technology. In addition, employing Islamic education teacher certification program, either by portfolio or PLPG and PPG, advance the professional competencies of teachers, enhance the awareness and educational insight, enrich precious experiences for educational and learning development, furthermore, strengthen the capability to plan and carry out Islamic educational learning activities.