The main thrust of this study was to examine sea robbery and maritime business operations in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The Routine Activity Theory propounded in (1979) by Lawrence .E. Cohen and Marcus Felson served as the theoretical guide. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select respondents from three littoral states in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The sample size for this study was 400; this was derived using the Taro Yamane formula. Questionnaire and oral interview were used as methods of data collection. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between sea robbery and artisanal fishing, sea robbery and water transportation, sea robbery and tourism development, also sea robbery and coastal trading in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The implication is that the continuing existence of the activities of robbers in the waterways of the Niger Delta region will impact negatively on the economy of business operators as well as scare investors from investing in the region. In addition, these waterways will continue to maintain their notorious posture and ranking as dangerous waterways by the international maritime watchdogs such as the International Maritime Bureau and International Maritime Organization. Furthermore, it was concluded from the study that sea robbery is rife in the Niger Delta region because of the following criminogenic factors (a) the endowment of crude oil in the study area (b) other commercial activities which are transported by the waterways and (c) the absence of adequate surveillance. Consequent upon this, it is recommended from the study, among others, that problem oriented policing at sea robbery hotspots be adopted as a measure to guarantee safety of life and property along the waterways and creeks in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
International relations (IR), international studies (IS) or international affairs (IA) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy, trade, and foreign policy—and relations with and among other international actors, such as intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), international legal bodies, and multinational corporations (MNCs).
The relationship in organizations between education and religion can be highly interwoven. This book highlights the interrelationship between the educational and shelter organization for disadvantaged female children and youth, Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta [Asylum of the Disadvantaged Children of Horta], Faial, the Azores, Portugal, and the entrance of the Religious Sisters of Congregação das Irmãs Franciscanas Hospitaleiras da Imaculada Conceição [Congregation of the Hospitaller Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Conception]. The book concludes with the presentation, in digital facsimile, of the 1933 Statutes and the Contract between the Asylum Board of Directors and the Religious Congregation established in 1932, which shaped a profound change in the organizational culture of the Asylum.
Distorted market competition poses new challenges for business negotiations. It affects the balance of negotiating powers among negotiation participants. Such situations often result in negative consequences for both buyers and sellers. As a result, it opens additional opportunities for international business, because of the emergence of other market participants in the relevant markets, which can provide additional alternatives for both buyers and sellers by reducing the negative impact on the distortion of competition and balancing the negotiating powers of the negotiating parties. The development and implementation of an effective international business negotiation strategy, as well as the assessment of the negotiating powers among negotiating parties and the essential components of their deviation from balance is important for the effective use of the potential of business negotiations — the negotiating power. When solving the scientific problem it is necessary to ensure that its solutions help to consider the balance of negotiating power among negotiation participants, allowing them to achieve the balance and to ensure the most efficiency of the development and implementation of their negotiation strategy.
In this chapter, the author makes a discussion on the mutual impacts of foreign direct investments (FDIs) from the developed to the developing countries with a specific reference to Tanzania, his home country. He identifies several theoretical mutual FDI impacts between the FDI source countries (predominantly, developed ones) and FDI destinations, especially the developing ones. He then presents several pieces of evidence on the mutual FDI impacts in Tanzania. The impacts include increased government revenues (through tax, royalties, privatization proceedings, licences and fees); increased direct and indirect employment; increased community support projects; increased up-to date and state-of the art technology; improved investment climate; technology transfer; and more market access. Tanzania’s impacts on the FDIs locating in the country include accessibility to markets and resources; investment incentives; profits; royalties; dividends; and employment.
Assigning a value to a pubic good is a challenge mainly due to the lack of commercial value. This type of goods, being non marketable, cannot be validated by means of supply and demand. From the other, the evaluation is necessary. A number o economical and social parameters are affected by the assigned value of a public good and in turn, they affect the price of marketable goods. This kind of parameters are taxation, management and preservation of the environment, full use of natural and social resources. The provider of the good- usually the state- have to evaluate rationally and correctly the price in monetary units to avoid loss of capital or failure to preserve and protect the good, something that might lead to the final loss of the good. It therefore necessary the development of specific methodologies that will allow the direct and relatively easy evaluation of public goods. Directness and simplicity are the mainframe for the challenge faced in the present study. The abstract nature of the majority of public goods leads, at best, to difficulties in describing benefits and costs. In the worst case, a non-expert, a simple citizen asked to pay tax for such a provision, more often than not has complete lack of awareness even for the existence of the specific good, even if he benefits from it in everyday life.
The Christian church in Africa has changed not only in form and structure, but also the nature of its core message and relevance to society. Any critical observer will find that there is growing disengagement of the Christian message along with the corollary of socioeconomic challenges on the continent. It is an important yet overlooked feature of the African church’s story that most of the popular theological and self-improvement books for African Christians within and outside the continent, have rarely touched on the issues that are being examined in this book. From the Nubian African Christian heritage, through the Catholic and Protestants movements, to the birth of the African Independent churches, the African Christian church has gained the accolade as the front runner in global Christianity. The charismatic renewal has been a key driver of the Christian church’s growth, from the early decades of the twentieth century, to the present. The African church remains a dominant social force on the continent. The lives of most Africans revolve around religion. The irony is that increasing (church) membership is happening alongside prevailing inequalities – economic and social. Questionable state policies led by religious political leaders, have been blamed for citizens’ poor living conditions. If religious national leaders are failing to deliver public goods, then faith groups that nurture these leaders must accept a fair share of the blame too. It is interesting that former President Jacob Zuma of South Africa waded into this paradox by saying:
This one-year writing process and 12 CH course means serious and focused research work. Composing a research paper of about 20,000 to 25,000 words on a literary topic of choice along with writing an abstract, selected bibliographies or works cited, annotated as well as simple, citing references, and professionally dividing the whole project into chapters, headings and its parts becomes mandatory for the research candidates. These candidates, who have been exposed to literary taste and linguistic styles by writing papers for various courses for more than a year and with their BA/BS 04-year background and overall almost five years of extensive reading now, are expected to be trained into the demanded academic standards. At this final stage of their orientation to quality literature the candidates may be asked to write these research papers for further growth in their career towards publication or PhD and higher degrees of research programs. Details regarding research at MS level may be connected back to the training received by these candidates through the course offered in “Advanced Research and Bibliographic Methods” during the Semester II of MA English (Honors) in Literature.