Economic reliance is more profound because numerous African nations have borrowed heavily to
finance infrastructure. Chinese “Angola Model” by which exports of raw materials is
compensated by loans financing investment in infrastructure…
Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money and investments. Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires money – called capital in the context of a business – and how they spend or invest that money. Finance is then often divided into the following broad categories: personal finance, corporate finance, and public finance.
This research empirically investigates the relationships among the four most common supply chain management practices (supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing, and lean system), net trade cycle, and financial performance. It consists of nine hypotheses concerning the relationships of the aforementioned factors that have been verified throughout reviewed literature and examined via employing the structural equation modelling technique. This research used data taken from floated questionnaires at three manufacturing companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain. An inclusive review of the literature to retrieve the four most common supply chain management practices has been undertaken and has identified limitations in the research techniques applied. This research has discovered the significant influences of the supplier partnership, the information sharing, and the lean system of the three most common supply chain management practices and the net trade cycle on the financial performance. Although this is the first research that combines the critical relationships among those four most common supply chain management practices, the net trade cycle, and the financial performance in one model, it is important to note that this study was unsuccessful in demonstrating whether there is a significant influence between customer relationship of the most common supply chain management practices and the net trade cycle on the financial performance. Researchers can employ the outcomes of this research to discover several related hypotheses in more details and increase the accuracy of forthcoming empirical relationships among those factors. This research offers particular suggestions for such further research. The outcomes of this research can be utilized by managers to highlight the execution of those four most common supply chain management practices and the net trade cycle in their respective ventures. Moreover, almost all of those relationships are found to have significant influences on the financial performance. Furthermore, the outcomes can be recommended to production managers who may well assign resources to enhance these practices to achieve the greatest outcomes.
Au Burkina, la production agricole est encore tributaire de la pluviométrie. C’est ainsi que des années de déficit alimentaire alternent avec celles des excédents en fonction des aléas climatiques. D’une manière générale le pays est de temps en temps déficitaire depuis la grande sécheresse des années 1973. Les populations sont soumises à des famines saisonnières. Régulièrement, 500 à 600 mille personnes sont menacées par la famine entre 1995 et 1997. Ce chiffre est passé à 800 mille pour l’année 1998. D’importantes percées ont pourtant été réalisées dans le domaine de la sécurité alimentaire. La production agricole par habitant (selon la FAO, 1996) serait passée de 180 kg dans les années 1960 à 300 kg dans les années 1990.
Study findings on the effects of education funding on student performance have been inconsistent. Some have indicated that it is how money is spent and not how much is available that determine academic outcomes. In Uganda, poor performance of Universal Primary Education (UPE) schools has partly been blamed on ineffectively utilization of UPE funds disbursed by government. This study aimed at establishing the relationship between funding and academic performance of such schools in Aboke sub-county, Kole District, northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study design was adopted where both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used. Six schools out of 13 and a total of 165 respondents were sampled purposively or randomly to constitute study samples. Questionnaire, interview and documentary review methods were used to collect primary and secondary data. Tool validity was ensured through pre-testing while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha test of reliability. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. A total of 85.7% agreed on the availability of instructional materials. The role of the SMC in academic performance was established as not being clear (48.7%) while on average, majority of the respondents (53.5%) supported the statements about PTA. The Pearson Correlation findings indicate positive strong and statistically significant relationships between the size of financial disbursement and academic performance; timing of disbursement and academic performance; accountability and academic performance; and between accountability and funding. The regression analysis indicated that the funds size, disbursement timing and funds utilization have a significant combined effect on academic performance of UPE schools. It was concluded that low level of funding leads to poor performance of schools and that the size of funding greatly affects the academic performance compared to the timing of disbursement. It was recommended that the Government should improve UPE funding so as to improve academic performance of UPE schools.
Delay has been one of the most prevalent challenges within church construction projects, especially in the orthodox churches. Despite construction challenges and project delays within most orthodox churches, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on unearthing the factors that lead to church construction delays. This quantitative study is aimed at exploring church construction delays within the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. After extensive literature and theoretical review, a proposed construct was generated with a structured questionnaire and distributed using the online survey tool, MikeCRM. Out of the 480 questionnaires distributed, 402 were completed and returned, representing a response rate of 84.8%. The questionnaires were completed by 39.3% Other Positions, 21.9% Resident Pastors/Agents, 18.9% Managers, 9.95% Project Managers, 5.90% Consultants, 1.99% Site superintendents (foreman), and 1.99% Electricians. The sample data were analysed statistically using Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, Pearson correlations, and AMOS for reliability and validity and for measuring the suitability of the proposed constructs. The study confirmed six factors as being responsible for the church construction delay with Material-related being the highest influential factor and Client/Ownerrelated as the least. The other four factors include Project-related, Quality-related, External-related, and Church Organizational Structure. The findings will help academicians, building contractors and church stakeholders with awareness of church construction delays. Theoretically, the findings will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the research area of church construction delay from the perspective of developing countries.
This study aims to evaluate the extent to which banks in Zambia are benefiting from revenue diversification activities. Research design/methodology – The study used a quantitative research approach based on secondary data from 12 of the 18 banks in Zambia. Data analysis was buttressed by the use of several techniques such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index to measure bank diversification, ZScore to measure bank income volatility/risk and risk adjusted returns on assets and equity to measure profitability. Findings – The study finds that, in Zambia, some banks do not enhance their profit performance by diversifying into non-interest activities. For other banks, diversification yields better profit performance in some years, but not always. The overall picture, however, is that diversification into non-interest income earning activities enhances the profit performance of banks. With respect to bank riskiness as measured by income volatility, the study finds that, in Zambia, some banks do not reduce their income volatility by diversifying into non-interest earning activities. For other banks, diversification reduces income volatility in some periods, but not others. The overall picture, however, is that the larger the bank is, the more non-interest income diversification reduces its income volatility. Limitations – Although the Central Bank provided financial data for all the 18 banks in the country, only data for 12 banks was usable. Data for six banks did not cover the whole ten-year study period and was unusable for the purposes of the study. This limited the actual sample size. Furthermore, to preserve confidentiality, the bank data provided was anonymised such that it was impossible to tell the geographical spread of the bank, the bank’s product or market strategy, or whether the bank was foreign or locally owned. This limited the scope of analysis. Recommendations – Given that in general bank profitability has declined as banks have become less diversified, the Bank of Zambia needs to closely monitor performance of banks and avoid imposing regulations that stifle bank innovation. And since diversification does not always result in enhanced bank performance, banks should consider the extent to which their business models support non-bank activities before making diversification decisions.
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the success strategies of women who have attained senior executive positions in the Jamaican banking industry. Twelve female senior executives provided data via interviews. The interviews were audio- recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. The research allowed the successful senior executives to share their strategies surrounding corporate ascension. The interviews provided guidance to women who aspired to attain senior-executive positions in the Jamaican banking industry. The information acquired shared insights with the men in the industry about female perspectives. Lastly, the research may provide essential information to the leaders in the Jamaican banking industry as to ways they can assist deserving females achieve promotion into senior executive leadership positions through corporate policy, support systems, and equitable treatment. These strategies may provide the opportunity for male banking leaders to evaluate personal biases while gleaning insights, increasing awareness, and understanding.