Women Attaining Senior Executive Positions In The Jamaican Banking Industry: A Qualitative Exploratory Case Study

Karrian Hepburn Malcolm
  1. Abela, F., & Debono, M. (2019). The relationship between psychological contract breach and job-related attitudes within a manufacturing plant. SAGE Open.
  2. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018822179
  3. Adams, F. (2020). Great man theory of leadership: The case of Emmeline Pankhurst.
  4. SAGE Publications, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529718621
  5. Allen-Nichols, D. (2010). Factors that affect the advancement of African American women to CEO-level positions in banking within the Chicago metro central district. (Order No. 3413130, Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 118. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/746606132?accountid=458. (746606132).
  6. American Psychological Association (2020). Publication Manual of the American
  7. Psychological Association (7th Edition, 2020 Copyright).
  8. Astroth, K. S., & Chung, S. Y. (2018). Focusing on the fundamentals: Reading qualitative research with a critical eye. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 45(4), 381. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/focusing-onfundamentals-reading-qualitative/docview/2096468835/se-2?accountid=35812
  9. Bailey, B., & Charles, S. (2006). A gender review: Annual progress report 2003 on national social policy goals (Revised). Jamaica Social Policy Evaluation
  10. (JASPEV). Retrieved from http://mord.mona.uwi.edu/biblio/viewrefs.asp/rid=6761
  11. Bailey, B., & Ricketts, H. (2003). Gender vulnerabilities in Caribbean labour markets and decent work provision. Social and Economic Studies, 52(4), 49. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27865353
  12. Bank of Jamaica (2020, November). Financial System.
  13. http://www.boj.org.jm/financial_sys/index.php
  14. Bass, B. (1990), Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory Research and
  15. Managerial Applications, 3rd ed., Free Press, New York, NY
  16. Bian, L.; Leslie, S.; & Cimpian; A. (2017). Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children’s interests. Science, 355(6323), 389-39. doi:
  17. 1126/science.aah6524
  18. Blumenau, J. (2021). The effects of female leadership on women’s voice in political debate. British Journal of Political Science, 51(2), 750-771.
  19. doi:10.1017/S0007123419000334
  20. Borelli, J.L., Nelson, S.K., River, L.M., Birken, S.A. & Moss-Racusin, C. (2017). Gender differences in work-family guilt in parents of young children. Sex Roles, 76 (356–
  21. . https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0579-0
  22. Brown, B. G. (2021). Experiences of African American women in middle level management: An exploratory case study (Order No. 28320910). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Phoenix. (2507167385). https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/experiences-african-americanwomen-middle-level/docview/2507167385/se-2?accountid=35812 Brundage, M. R. (2016). Women’s inherent and learned leadership characteristics:
  23. Navigation to success in educational leadership roles (Order No. 10252679).
  24. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1854864670).
  25. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/womens-inherentlearned-leadership/docview/1854864670/se-2?accountid=35812
  26. Campbell, S., Greenwood, M., Prior, S., Shearer, T., Walkem, K., Young, S., Bywaters, D., & Walker, K. (2020). Purposive sampling: complex or simple? Research case examples. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(8), 652–
  27. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987120927206
  28. Catalyst (2020, July). Momentum for change in 2019.
  29. https://www.catalyst.org/2018/12/11/momentum-for-change-in-2019/
  30. Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE open medicine, 7, 2050312118822927.
  31. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312118822927
  32. Claridge, T. (2020). Current definitions of social capital: Academic definitions in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/current-definitions-ofsocial-capital/
  33. Cruzes, D.S., Dybå, T., Runeson, P. & Höst, M. (2015). Case studies synthesis: A thematic, cross-case, and narrative synthesis worked example. Empirical Software
  34. Engineering, 20, 1634–1665 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-014-9326-8
  35. Ebneyamini, S., & Sadeghi Moghadam, M. R. (2018). Toward developing a framework for conducting case study research. International Journal of Qualitative
  36. Methods. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918817954
  37. Ellemers, N. (2017). Gender stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 69 (275-298). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011719
  38. Ferdoush, A. (2018) Seeing borders through the lens of structuration: A theoretical framework. Geopolitics, 23(1)180-200. DOI: 10.1080/14650045.2017.1341406
  39. Flabbi, L., Macis, M., Moro, A., Schivardi, F. (2019). Do female executives make a difference? The impact of female leadership on gender gaps and firm performance. The Economic Journal, 129(622), 2390–2423.
  40. https://doi.org/10.1093/ej/uez012
  41. Flood, M. (2019). Gender equality: Engaging men in change. Perspectives. The Art of
  42. Medicine, 393(10189), 2386-2387. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31295-4
  43. Francis, T. M. (2017). The lived experience of Caribbean women and their experiences as senior-level leaders: A phenomenological study (Order No. 10271908). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1893751221). https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/lived-experience-caribbeanwomen-their/docview/1893751221/se-2?accountid=35812
  44. Fusch, P., Fusch, G. E., & Ness, L. R. (2018). Denzin’s paradigm shift: Revisiting triangulation in qualitative research. Journal of Social Change, 10(1), 19– 32. https://doi.org/10.5590/JOSC.2018.10.1.02
  45. Gair, S., & Baglow, L. (2018). Social justice in a tertiary education context: Do we practice what we preach? Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 13(3), 207–
  46. https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197918793059
  47. Gardner, T. D. (2021). Empowerment in the electrical power generation industry: A qualitative exploratory case study (Order No. 28543138). Available from
  48. Dissertations & Theses @ University of Phoenix; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2558425733). https://www.proquest.com/dissertationstheses/empowerment-electrical-power-generationindustry/docview/2558425733/se-2?accountid=35812
  49. Gayle, H. (2002). Adolescent male survivability in Jamaica. Retrieved from http://mord.mona.edu/biblio/viewrefs.asp?rid=6628
  50. Gipson, A. N., Pfaff, D. L., Mendelsohn, D. B., Catenacci, L. T., & Burke, W. W. (2017). Women and leadership: Selection, development, leadership style, and performance. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 53(1), 32–
  51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886316687247
  52. Gragnano, A., Simbula, S., & Miglioretti, M. (2020). Work-life balance: Weighing the importance of work-family and work-health balance. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3), 907.
  53. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030907
  54. Hancock, D. R., Algozzine, B. (2016). Doing case study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  55. Haslam, A. (2020). Leadership and personality: Tait perspectives and “great man” theory.
  56. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529724929
  57. Hentschel, T., Heilman, M. E., Peus, C.V. (2019). The multiple dimensions of gender stereotypes: a current look at men’s and women’s characterizations of others and themselves. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1), 11.
  58. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00011
  59. Holden, S., & Sunindijo, R. Y. (2018). Technology, long work hours, and stress worsen work-life balance in the construction industry. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 10(2). Retrieved from https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/ijie/article/view/2619
  60. Hryniewicz, Lygia Gonçalves Costa, & Vianna, Maria Amorim. (2018). Women and leadership: Obstacles and gender expectations in managerial positions. Cadernos
  61. EBAPE.BR, 16(3), 331-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1679-395174876
  62. Ibarra, H., & Hunter, M. (2007, January). How leaders create and use networks. Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 40-47. https://hbr.org/2007/01/how-leaders-create-anduse-networks
  63. International Labour Organization. (2018). Gender at work in the Caribbean: Country Report for Jamaica. https://www.ilo.org/caribbean/informationresources/publications/WCMS_651948/lang–en/index.htm
  64. International Labour Organization. (2020). Country Profiles, The latest decent work statistics by country. https://ilostat.ilo.org/data/country-profiles/
  65. Irby, B.J., Boswell, J.N., Kappler Hewitt, K., Lynch, J., Abdelrahman, N. & Jeong, S. (2017) The mentoring relationship, mentoring & tutoring: Partnership in learning. Taylor & Francis Online, (25)2, 119-122.
  66. DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2017.1337367
  67. Issah, M. (2018). Change leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. SAGE
  68. Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018800910
  69. Jamaica Ministry of Justice. (2019). Jamaica Laws online: Employment (Equal pay for
  70. Men and Women) Act, Act 34 of 1975.
  71. Https://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/The%20Employment%20%28Equal%2
  72. Pay%20for%20Men%20and%20Women%29%20Act.pdf
  73. Jiang, H., & Shen, H. (2020). Toward a relational theory of employee engagement:
  74. understanding authenticity, transparency, and employee behaviors. International
  75. Journal of Business Communication. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329488420954236
  76. Jogulu, U. D., & Wood, G. J. (2006). The role of leadership theory in raising the profile of women in management. Equal Opportunities International, 25(4), 236-250. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02610150610706230
  77. Johansson, K., Andersson, E., Johansson, M., & Lidestav, G. (2019). The discursive resistance of men to gender-equality interventions: Negotiating “unjustness” and
  78. “unnecessity” in Swedish forestry. Men and Masculinities, 22(2), 177–196.
  79. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X17706400
  80. Koenig, A. M. (2018). Comparing prescriptive and descriptive gender stereotypes about children, adults, and the elderly. Frontiers in Psychology 9(1086), 1-13.
  81. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01086
  82. Lawrence, W. W. (2018). Internationalizing a financial firm in small developing markets.
  83. London: The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM). https://search.proquest.com/docview/2058267003?accountid=45853
  84. Leslie, H. S. (2017). The relationship of gender equity to compensation, career advancement and leadership in selected colleges of business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States (Order No. 10602776) [Doctoral Dissertation, University of
  85. Phoenix] Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/relationship-gender-equitycompensation-career/docview/1944378844/se-2?accountid=35812
  86. Lindo, J. E. (2008). The under-representation of Jamaican women in leadership positions: A phenomenological study (Order No. 3406665) [Doctoral Dissertation,
  87. University of Phoenix]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. http://search.proquest.com/docview/276456376?accountid=458.
  88. Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: Guided by information power. Qualitative Health
  89. Research, 26(13), 1753–1760. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315617444
  90. Merriam, S.B. & Grenier, R.S. (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco California
  91. Mihas, P. (2019). Research and assessment methods. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of
  92. Education. https://10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1195 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1609406919856797
  93. Neuburger, L. & Egger, R. (2020) Travel risk perception and travel behaviour during the
  94. COVID-19 pandemic 2020: a case study of the DACH region, Current Issues in
  95. Tourism. Taylor & Francis Online, 20(1). DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1803807
  96. O’Reilly, J., Smith, M., Deakin, S., Burchell, B. (2015). Equal Pay as a Moving Target:
  97. International perspectives on forty-years of addressing the gender pay gap.
  98. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 39(2), 299–317. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bev010.
  99. Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and policy in mental health, 42(5), 533–544. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y
  100. Pant, J.J. and Venkateswaran, V. (2020). “Is diversity debate farfetched? Psychological contract expectations, performance and intention to stay”. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 39(6) 641-666. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-09-2018-0158
  101. QSR International. (2021). NVivo [Computer software]. Burlington, MA.
  102. Rashid, Y., Rashid, A., Warraich, M. A., Sabir, S. S., & Waseem, A. (2019). Case study method: A step-by-step guide for business researchers. International Journal of
  103. Qualitative Methods. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919862424
  104. Rogers, E. (2021). A union’s perspective of multinational investor Arcelormittal in
  105. Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory qualitative case study (Order No.
  106. [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Phoenix]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/unionsperspective-multinational-investor/docview/2544037305/se-2?accountid=35812
  107. Ruben, B. D., & Gigliotti, R. A. (2016). Leadership as social influence: An expanded view of leadership communication theory and practice. Journal of Leadership &
  108. Organizational Studies, 23(4), 467-479. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051816641876
  109. Sapeg, R. (2017). Exclusion in academia: Latina faculty struggle towards tenure (Order
  110. No. 10622753) [Doctoral Dissetation, University of St. Thomas). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. https://www.proquest.com/dissertationstheses/exclusion-academia-latina-faculty-struggle/docview/1968621951/se-
  111. ?accountid=35812
  112. Shyu, I., Johnson, K. A., George, M. R., Gratzinger, D., Brissette, M. D., Childs, J. M.,
  113. Conran, R. M., Dixon, L. R., McCloskey, C. B., Prieto, V. G., Roberts, C. A., Rojiani, A. M., Timmons Jr, C. F., & Hoffman, R. D. (2020). Gender parity in gainful employment and other gender trends in the job market for recent pathology graduates. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 144(4), 435–
  114. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2019-0354-CP
  115. Simmons, L. (2009). A qualitative case study on the glass ceiling and African American women in banking (Order No. 3388308) [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Phoenix]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
  116. http://search.proquest.com/docview/305127005?accountid=458. (305127005).
  117. Statistical Institute of Jamaica. (2020). Main Labour Force Indicators 2018.
  118. http://statinja.gov.jm/LabourForce/NewLFS.aspx
  119. Tran, S.K. (2017). Google: A reflection of culture, leader, and management. International
  120. Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 2(10).
  121. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40991-017-0021-0
  122. UN Women. (2017). Gender Equality and Women’s Economic Empowerment in Jamaica.
  123. https://jamaica.un.org/en/16783-gender-equality-and-womens-economicempowerment-jamaica
  124. University of the West Indies, Mona Campus. (2020). % distribution of enrolment by sex, campus and faculty – 2014/15 to 2018/19. https://www.uwi.edu/uop/genderdistribution-enrolment-campus-and-faculty
  125. Vasileiou, K., Barnett, J., Thorpe, S., Young, T. (2018). Characterising and justifying sample size sufficiency in interview-based studies: systematic analysis of qualitative health research over a 15-year period. BMC Medical Research
  126. Methodology, 18(148). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0594-7
  127. Wedderburn, J. (2006). Gender, trade liberalization and the CARICOM single market and economy: Challenges and options for civil society. Caribbean Quarterly, 52(2), 138-155,221,228-229.
  128. http://search.proquest.com/docview/221229096?accountid=458
  129. Whitehouse, G., & Smith, M. (2020). Equal pay for work of equal value, wage-setting and the gender pay gap. Journal of Industrial Relations, 62(4), 519–
  130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022185620943626
  131. Yang, Y., Chawla, N.V. & Uzzi, B. (2019). A network’s gender composition and communication pattern predict women’s leadership success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(6) 2033-2038.
  132. https://www.pnas.org/content/116/6/2033. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721438116
  133. Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Thousand
  134. Oaks, CA: Sage.
  135. Yusuf-Khalil, Y. (2006, October 30-November 3). Engendering development needs:
  136. ‘Doing’ gender through distance learning in the English-Speaking Caribbean.
  137. [Paper Presentation]. The Fourth Pan Commonwealth forum on Open Learning,
  138. Ocho Rios, Jamaica. http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/viewabstract.php?id=222
  139. Zenger, J. & Folkman, J. (2019, June). Research: Women score higher than men in most leadership skills. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2019/06/researchwomen-score-higher-than-men-in-most-leadership-skills
Women Attaining Senior Executive Positions In The Jamaican Banking Industry: A Qualitative Exploratory Case Study