The goal of this research is to develop and test a theoretical model of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on user acceptance of Internet-based information services. The model, referred to as the integrated model of technology acceptance, is being developed with two major objectives. First, it should improve our understanding of user acceptance behavior, providing new theoretical insights into the successful design and implementation of Internet-based information services. Second, the integrated model should provide the theoretical basis for a practical system design and analysis approach that would enable practitioners to develop new information services or modify their current services. For user acceptance to be viable, the model of user acceptance must be valid. The present research takes several steps toward establishing a valid motivational model of the user, and aims to provide the foundation for future research that will lead toward this end. Research steps taken in the present research include: (1) choosing U&G (Uses and Gratifications) theory, a well-studied theoretical approach from mass communication to formulate an integrated technology acceptance model with TAM (Technology Acceptance Model); (2) developing and pre-testing the measures for the model’s factors in two pilot studies; (3) conducting two rounds of data collection and analyze them to prove that the integrated model is applicable to the present context; (4) reviewing literature in both information systems and mass communication to demonstrate that empirical support exists for various elements of the proposed model, and (5) using advanced statistical technique, structural equation modeling (SEM), to test the model’s structure. vi The results confirm our proposed integrated model. The model posits that entertainment motivation is another important factor in determining the use of online services in addition to the behavioral intention, as postulated by TAM. The integrated model also confirms that TAM’s belief constructs, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, are predictors of behavioral intention. Furthermore, perceived usefulness predicts behavioral intention. It also argues that the level of use influences the degree of satisfaction. Satisfaction is a construct that is heavily studied due to its important role as an indicator of system success.
Statistics is the science concerned with developing and studying methods for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and presenting empirical data.
The study focused on the influence of leadership styles in Pentecostal churches with reference to Zimbabwe. There has not been a comprehensive study on leadership styles amongst Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe which extends the leadership theories developed for business organizations to church organizations. The mixed methods (pragmatic) approach was adopted in the study using both qualitative and quantitative data. It allows the researcher to use multiple methods, different worldviews and assumptions as well as different forms of data collection and analysis. The pragmatic approach is not committed to one system of philosophy and reality and it gives the researcher freedom of choice of methods, techniques and procedures of the research that best answers the research problem. The mixed methods was also adopted for triangulation purposes. A case study approach using exploratory and descriptive research designs was employed. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were the main data collection tools. Document analysis was also used as a triangulation method. Three main participant groups in this study were the founders of the church, the leaders of the church such as pastors, elders, deacons and departmental leaders and finally the members of the church. Six Pentecostal churches were identified using specified criteria in order to create boundaries. Analysis of data was guided by the grounded theory propounded by Glaser and Strauss (1967) using the Constant Comparative Method. In addition the Public and Hidden Transcripts Theory by Scott (1992) was used as a discourse analysis tool. The findings were divided into four main categories, the leadership styles, growth strategies, sustainability and succession plan in order to address the influence of leadership styles on growth among the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Under the leadership styles, the study sought to find out first the leadership styles of the founders or senior pastors of Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Overall the findings indicate that the transformational leadership style is the leadership style of founders of the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. The second part on leadership was to find out the leadership styles of leaders in which the democratic leadership style was the mostly practiced one. The final aspect was to identify the dominant leadership style within the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. The supportive leadership style was found to be the dominant leadership style in Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Two models are presented as contribution to knowledge especially which can either be adapted or adopted by leaders in churches, business and management circles. The first model, the Ordinary-Questioning-Decision Making and Stability Model (OQDS) identifies the levels that people are at within the organisation (church). After that identification relevant leaders need to groom them using the Contextualised Leadership-Follower Model (CLF), in order to bring about loyalty and commitment.
Delay has been one of the most prevalent challenges within church construction projects, especially in the orthodox churches. Despite construction challenges and project delays within most orthodox churches, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on unearthing the factors that lead to church construction delays. This quantitative study is aimed at exploring church construction delays within the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. After extensive literature and theoretical review, a proposed construct was generated with a structured questionnaire and distributed using the online survey tool, MikeCRM. Out of the 480 questionnaires distributed, 402 were completed and returned, representing a response rate of 84.8%. The questionnaires were completed by 39.3% Other Positions, 21.9% Resident Pastors/Agents, 18.9% Managers, 9.95% Project Managers, 5.90% Consultants, 1.99% Site superintendents (foreman), and 1.99% Electricians. The sample data were analysed statistically using Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, Pearson correlations, and AMOS for reliability and validity and for measuring the suitability of the proposed constructs. The study confirmed six factors as being responsible for the church construction delay with Material-related being the highest influential factor and Client/Ownerrelated as the least. The other four factors include Project-related, Quality-related, External-related, and Church Organizational Structure. The findings will help academicians, building contractors and church stakeholders with awareness of church construction delays. Theoretically, the findings will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the research area of church construction delay from the perspective of developing countries.
L’économie burkinabè est à dominante agricole. En effet, les secteurs de l’agriculture et de l’élevage qui emploient 85 % de la population active fournissent à eux seuls 33% du Produit Intérieur Brut (PIB), et 80 % des recettes d’exportation (DGPER, 2011). Les terres à vocation agricoles ont estimées à quelque 9 millions ha, soit le tiers du territoire national. Environ 3,5 millions d’hectares (soit 39 % des terres à vocations agricoles) sont mis en culture annuellement. C’est avant tout une agriculture de subsistance basée sur les céréales vivrières (sorgho, mil, maïs, riz) qui occupent à elles seules plus de 80 % des surfaces emblavées annuellement. Le sorgho est la première céréale cultivée au Burkina Faso, tant en superficie (43 % des superficies totales) qu’en volume (40 %). La plante s’adapte bien, en effet, aux conditions agro-climatiques d’une grande partie du territoire du Burkina Faso, et demande peu d’intrants pour sa culture. À l’instar du mil, le sorgho est une céréale vivrière avant tout, qui est largement plantée en complément d’autres cultures et destinée à l’autoconsommation dans les ménages ruraux. Dans les centres urbains, elle est souvent remplacée par le riz comme principale céréale consommée.
A distinctive feature of the manufacturing sector in Kenya is the co-existence of the modern sector alongside a rapidly expanding informal sector. While the formal sector comprises mainly small, medium, and large-scale enterprises (i.e., firms employing more than 100 workers), the informal sector consists of numerous open-air small and microscale productive activities in towns and rural trading centres, usually employing less than five workers. Traditional artisan production in the informal sector is dominated by small undertakings employing less than 5 workers. A large proportion of these firms’ output is directed towards satisfying needs of consumer goods and services domestically. These include items such as clothing, furniture, foodstuffs and motor vehicle repairs. While data on this sub-sector is not easy to come by, there is little doubt from casual empiricism that it is one of the fastest growing sectors, and a major source of employment in the country (Ikiara, 1991, Republic of Kenya, 2007). It is equally clear that this sector has little or no impact on Kenyan manufactured exports, due mainly to the low quality of their products.