We learn about sociolinguistic competence from the “marriage” between
sociology and linguistics. Sociolinguistics helps us become more aware that the
existence of the line “We cannot buy class” calls for a substantial knowledge of words
and wisdom of the abstracts.
Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis. 3–5 to develop a body of knowledge about social order and social change. 32–40 While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter can range from micro-level analyses of society (i.e. of individual interaction and agency) to macro-level analyses (i.e. of systems and the social structure).
The traditional and informal sector was expected to disappear as the modern or formal sector grew and absorbed more labour in enhancing economic growth and development. But contrary to expectations, the informal sector and informal employment has continued to be a significant factor in our modern world gaining predominance (ILO, 2012; ILO, 2014). Many countries have not been able to develop a modern economy capable of providing adequate employment opportunities for their rapidly growing populations. With 53% of new employment generated in 2014, Nigeria’s informal sector, constituted by over 17 million businesses and enterprises, which led to the growth in total job creation within the period reflecting the significant contribution of that segment to the labour market and the overall economy (NBS, 2015). The informal sector remains a major source of employment, income generation and expansion of small and medium businesses in many countries of the world in which Nigeria is not an exemption. The informal sector consists of own account or small and medium enterprises with little or no formal organization or capital, and with casual employment.
When we talk about anthropological linguistics, the first thing we have in mind is the term “anthropology” aside from linguistics, of course. If we dwell on this “anthropology” term, what we have in mind is the word “culture”. Now, just what do we mean by “anthropology”? Yes, we know that you can immediately have a Google search for the answer. For the time being, we will settle on anthropology as the scientific study of man and lower animals. However, for our subject in Anthropological Linguistics, we’ll just focus on humanity, that is, about us being human. If we add culture to our being human, we’ll be humane, and this is very important. So let’s settle with this: Anthropological Linguistics is a subfield of Linguistics that deals with language in the anthropological point of view. This differs from Linguistic Anthropology which is a subfield of Anthropology along with Cultural Anthropology (or Ethnology), Social Anthropology, and Psychological Anthropology . We need not define what “Linguistics” is (scientific study of language) by the way, so we go directly to the marriage between the two: Anthropology + Linguistics = Anthropological Linguistics. Hey, for the record, though many “cultured” people would think of “Anthropological Linguistics” same as “Linguistic Anthropology”, we still maintain that they’re in a way different as “emotion” differs from “feelings”. For the sake of discussion, the first one (anthropological linguistics) describes “linguistics” as anthropological. The second one (linguistic anthropology) describes “anthropology” as linguistic. When personalities major in English (language), and not 10 anthropology, they settle for Anthropological Linguistics. Nevertheless, they are not to disregard “linguistic anthropology” right away because it is still linguistics. Well then, note that it is not a choice between a person who looks like a monkey and a monkey that looks like a person. We’re talking about the same person in two different attires at one time and another. It’s also like dealing with the difference between “Psychology of Language” and “Psycholinguistics”. Ever wonder what’s the “first love” of “Linguistics” before marrying “Anthropology” to have this “Anthropological Linguistics” union? It’s culture. Yes, we cannot just say “Cultural Linguistics” because we know for a fact that “culture” is also present in some other “married” disciplines like sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics
Huge assets have been lost by governments and local authorities because of failed public projects. Fundamental inspiration for utilizing PPPs in public projects is their capability to improve value for money (VfM) for shareholders. Principal political contention against PPPs is that privately-owned industries make benefits on public resources. Accompanying chapters present the PPP models, PPP effective experience of chosen nations, and the execution of PPP models in SSA nations in transport and ports, energy, water, health, agribusiness, education and housing sectors. Approaches to guarantee their positive effect on the value produced for the public in the various sectors are proposed. In transport projects, political responsibility by an intra-agency planning board of trustees accountable for contract building and shareholder commitment is required. In health projects, the choice of improving existing establishments is desirable over costly new establishments. In education to incorporate the most vulnerable and impeded communities is required. In energy ventures to meet social and environmental targets in the contract is required. In water projects, the capacity of the administrator to create benefits must be straightforwardly identified with performance. In housing projects relevant planning and execution guarantee high public value.
We live in an increasingly digital society, in which the Internet and the intensification of interconnections in the virtual world have a central place in a context in which the digital, applied both in production (the smart industry) and – more widely and ambitiously – in society (the super-smart society), will be paramount in promoting quality of life and sustainability as economics, ecology and social equity. This e-Book offers a set of topics related to the Digital Society: Industry 4.0, Society 5.0, Digital literacy, Transversal competences, Sustainability digital innovations, Sustainability Literacy, Sociology, Socialisation, Sociology and History, Inequalities in the digital society and Sociology, Ivan Illich, Preprint, Organisational culture, Bureaucracy, Digitalisation of organisations and COVID-19. In summary, this E-book seeks to be a contribution to a more informed society, shaped by the digital in the social dynamics, in its broader concept, through a stance focused on social sciences.
Sociology, the science that, in the analysis of the complexity of social reality, relates the social to the social (Durkheim). What is it, what is it for, how is it done, how is it taught, what does it mean to be a sociologist? These are some of the questions that are on the basis of this book, as a contribution to the analysis of some of the contemporary challenges Sociology faces. This work consists of a collection of some published articles that address subjects such as the issue of Sociology being a form of scientific knowledge that, building its object of analysis through the mobilisation of the theory of its body of knowledge, seeks to account for social reality, always reflecting critically on its activity. This book intends to articulate rigour with a pedagogical component, inasmuch that several of the chapters were underpinned by our activity as teachers.