Cancer imposes continuous challenges on global health, and the trend of its incidence will make it the leading cause of mortality in the twenty-first century (Robert, Vries & Hans 2010). Therefore, identifying novel-cancer antigens that can be used as biomarkers and targets for therapeutics has been a priority to minimize cancer morbidity and mortality rates (Grizzi et al. 2007)
Medicine is the science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.
Heart Failure (HF) is a “clinical syndrome characterized by the inability of systemic perfusion to meet the body’s metabolic demands and is usually caused by cardiac pump dysfunction. HF is subdivided into systolic and diastolic HF. Systolic failure presents reduced cardiac contractility whereas diastolic failure exhibits impaired cardiac relaxation with abnormal ventricular filling.” HF is a result of many functional or structural discorders. They can be acquired or congenital that eventually weakens the capacity of the ventricles eject blood. (1) It is a leading cause of repeated emergency department visits and admissions across the globe. HF has become an epidemic in developed world due to advent of modern treatment protocols and increased survival in patients with CAD (CAD). Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the leading cause of HF and subsequent admissions in developing countries. (2) In India, HF constitutes a significant part of health problems with an in-hospital mortality of 20%–30% approximately. Lack of adherence to medication and poor tolerance to guidelines based treatment is the main reason behind it. (3) Most common cause of HF is CAD, hypertension, RHD, and other conditions like cardiomyopathies, endocarditis, myocarditis and congenital heart disease. (4) Elderly are primarily affected age group with an approximate incidence of 10/1000 population after 65 years of age. Near about 80% patients admitted for HF are 65 years old or above.
Cognitive science is a highly interdisciplinary field of scientific study of the human mind and its structure, processes, and complexities. As it pertains to cognition, it combines the ideas and methods from other disciplines related to intelligence and behavior which include psychology, education, artificial intelligence, anthropology, sociology, neuroscience, computer science, computational linguistics, philosophy, and linguistics in general. Cognitive science basically focuses on how the human mind works with regard to language acquisition, memory, perception, and other forms and contents characterizing the nature of human knowledge beyond preferences and biases. Psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science being a combination of psychology and linguistics
Le maïs constitue actuellement la première culture la plus importante dans le monde, avec une production estimée à plus de milliards de tonnes (FAO, 2015). Les pays en développement représentent 58% des zones maïsicoles mondiales et, 37% de la production mondiale de cette céréale (FAO, 2015). Les États-Unis sont de loin le plus gros producteur de maïs avec 522 millions de tonnes en 2013 (FAO, 2014). En termes d’utilisation, le maïs est une denrée de consommation de base pour une partie importante de la population mondiale. Il constitue un complément alimentaire pour des millions d’autres personnes et est également réservé à l’usage industriel et aux aliments pour bétails. La consommation mondiale de maïs semble s’accélérer, « principalement sous l’effet de la hausse de la demande dans les PED (principalement la Chine et le Mexique), et plus récemment en raison de l’utilisation croissante du maïs dans la production d’éthanol aux États-Unis ». Au niveau du Burkina Faso, le maïs occupe une place de plus en plus importante dans la production céréalière et connait un engouement croissant de la part des acteurs. En effet, longtemps classé troisième culture après le sorgho et le mil, le maïs est depuis 2011, la deuxième culture céréalière en termes de volume de production, avec une part de la production passant de moins de 20% à 32% environ de la production céréalière totale entre 2001 et 2012 (DGESS, 2013). La production actuelle dépasse un million de tonne avec des rendements moyens de 3,7 tonnes en irrigué et 1,5 tonnes en pluviale. Cette croissance est due à l’effet des politiques de promotion d’extension des surfaces emblavées en maïs en conjugaison avec l’amélioration des rendements, rendue possible par l’utilisation des fertilisants chimiques mais également par la mise à disposition de variétés améliorées par la recherche agricole.
It is very strange that there is no trace of economic pathology in economics which regards the economy as an organism. As even a human body, an excellent organism, occasionally gets sick, the economy, an organism, also gets occasionally an economic disease. Rather the economy gets sick more often in the life cycle of the economy than that of a human body since the organic function of the former is inferior to that of the latter, needless to say the immune system. The economic pathology should have been established and advanced already as the pathology has been done for human body. Indeed, the pathology for human body is developed more than its physiology and divided several parts which also have advanced in depth and diversity. So, there is no reason that the economic pathology is neglected in economics of which theoretical system is alike that of physiology. Indeed, economics has got its birth and development affected directly by the natural science. In the late 18th century when the modern economics was established as an academic discipline, the natural science was in the limelight and its organic approach was naturally introduced into economics, which is proved by the fact that the theoretical systems of all the economic schools have been established organically, and the development of economics is closely related to that of natural science. So, this organic approach is common for all the schools such as neoclassical economics, Marxian economics, Keynesian economics, institutional economics, historical economics, behavioral economics, complex economics, and so on.