# Engineering

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

## Fault Analysis of Nigeran 330kv Power System

This work involved the study and simulation of various faults, (single line-to-Ground fault LG, line-to-line fault L-L, 3phase Balanced fault L-L-L, and Double line-to-Ground L-L-G) in the Nigerian 330kV power network system and the analysis of results.

## Global Set Theory

Our reasoning is based on 2-valued logic. That is, we are convinced that a statement is either true or false. 2-valued logic is said to be the logic of the Absolute. The true (1) and the false (0) are expressions of the degree of truth, and called truth values. Truth values 1 and 0 form a complete Boolean lattice 2 with operations ∨, ∧, ¬ : 2 = ⟨ {1, 0} : ∧(and), ∨ : (or), ¬(not) ⟩ The logic represented by Boolean lattice is called a classical logic. Thus, we accept the law of excluded middle and distributive law as logical axioms. Classical set theory is developed by the classical logic with axioms which characterize ‘sets’. The whole sets forms the universe of set theory. A model V of the universe of classical set theory is constructed inductively from empty set ∅ by adding power sets of existing sets repeatedly : Vα = {u | ∃β ∈α(u:Vβ →2)}, V = ∪ α∈On Vα , where subset of Vβ is represented by 2-valued characteristic function, i.e. u ⊂ Vβ def ⇐⇒ u:Vβ →2. Mathematics, which is a language of science, is developed in the classical set theory.

## Study of Dynamics of Upper High Salinity Water Mass in the Arabian Sea

The water masses a term being used in oceanographic literature has been borrowed from meteorology. The water masses of specific characteristics are formed in different regions of the oceans by the processes occurring at the surface of the oceans, and ocean-atmosphere interactions at specific locations and sink from the surface to subsurface depths. They move from the region of formation and spread out to different oceans, and deep mixing eventually pulls them up through the thermocline over large areas of the ocean. It is this upward mixing that drives the deep circulation. The water mass distribution is controlled by density gradients. The two key parameters governing these differences are temperature and salinity and are routinely used to characterize it. The salinity maximum and minimum are used in a temperature – salinity (T – S) graph to distinguish a water mass in a certain area of the ocean. This method of water mass identification was introduced first time by Helland and Hansen (1916). A salinity maximum or minimum is defined as that point on a T-S curve 2 which has a salinity greater than or less than the value obtained by the mixing of the water above and below it on the curve (Stewart, 2003).

## Exploring the Delays in Construction Projects: An Empirical Study of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana

Delay has been one of the most prevalent challenges within church construction projects, especially in the orthodox churches. Despite construction challenges and project delays within most orthodox churches, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on unearthing the factors that lead to church construction delays. This quantitative study is aimed at exploring church construction delays within the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. After extensive literature and theoretical review, a proposed construct was generated with a structured questionnaire and distributed using the online survey tool, MikeCRM. Out of the 480 questionnaires distributed, 402 were completed and returned, representing a response rate of 84.8%. The questionnaires were completed by 39.3% Other Positions, 21.9% Resident Pastors/Agents, 18.9% Managers, 9.95% Project Managers, 5.90% Consultants, 1.99% Site superintendents (foreman), and 1.99% Electricians. The sample data were analysed statistically using Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha, Pearson correlations, and AMOS for reliability and validity and for measuring the suitability of the proposed constructs. The study confirmed six factors as being responsible for the church construction delay with Material-related being the highest influential factor and Client/Ownerrelated as the least. The other four factors include Project-related, Quality-related, External-related, and Church Organizational Structure. The findings will help academicians, building contractors and church stakeholders with awareness of church construction delays. Theoretically, the findings will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the research area of church construction delay from the perspective of developing countries.

## Forced to Green’ or ‘Willingness to Green’? Behaviours under Uncertainty of Quota Evidence from China’s Adoption of New Energy Vehicles

Regarding China’s studies, it can be categorized as classical studies, contemporary and interdisciplinary researches, but under the criticism of theoretical absence as an ‘area study’. This research relates to the social, environmental, political and economic policies, subconsciously, it is also affected by the philosophy and history for the decision made by the government and people, namely, in term of the macro-perspective, it covers the philosophy, history, social, politics, and the environment, economics, industry reform. More importantly, it integrates the macro with the microperspectives, digging into individuals’ decision under a micro-perspective, providing a comprehensive insight, where it not only has a big picture on the evolution process in the longitudinal historical spectrum, but also a micro-world on its own functional mechanism regarding the individuals’ decision making. Accordingly, it is an interdisciplinary research providing a micro insight of behaviours from the evidence of emerging industry of new energy vehicles.

## The VUCA Method for Leadership & Management in Times of Crisis – Ex. Covid- 19: Adaptation, performance, and development

The acronym VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity) was coined in 1989, by the US Army War College – a school that depends on the US military – to denote the multilateral world more volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, after the end of the cold war and the dangers of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in 1990-1991. After the implementation of this concept and the evolution of its application, in different fields, as well as the development that has been added on its characteristics and principles, it is more and more used in companies and administrations. So, VUCA represents these four terms: (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity), these traits have always been present in the world, but what has changed is the speed of change affecting all aspects of our life. As the world accelerates, it brings a whole new dimension to the VUCA world. There are no more stable moments now, and there has never been so much technological ability to predict the world, in instability, the only certainty is the change that it is made permanent.