Economy

An economy is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. In general, it is defined ‘as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of scarce resources’. A given economy is a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of interrelated human practices and transactions that does not stand alone.

Property Registration and the Institution of Expropriation - a Comparative Constitutional Study of Law and Economics

Property Registration and the Institution of Expropriation – a Comparative Constitutional Study of Law and Economics

Vilfrendo Pareto describes the excellent distribution of economic resources which simultaneously achieves maximum productive efficiency and social justice. The Constitution of Greece describes the process of compulsory expropriation of property when there is a public need. The compensation criteria for this expropriation do not take into account the positive and negative externalities that the subsequent public project will cause. The consequence of this is the unjust social distribution of economic resources. The aim of this paper is to investigate this weakness of the compensation system that does not meet the criteria for Pareto improvement, while a constitutional analysis of comparative law concerning the provision of property is made. An appendix to the case law of the Greek Court of Audit is provided. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is proposed as the most complete for the experimental assessment of the maximum amount of compensation of owners during the process of forced expropriation through Experimental Economics tools.

Technical-economic Evaluation of Urban and Natural Environment Programs

Technical-economic Evaluation of Urban and Natural Environment Programs

The estimation of the value of public goods is challenging for two reasons: (a) the classic methods of estimation are suitable for marketed goods and not for nonmarketed goods for which the supply – demand curve does not apply and (b) the variety and abstract nature of such goods cannot facilitate the quantization of any of their properties, whereas the good per se might not be perceived by the population that enjoy the benefit offered. This study presents an attempt to adapt and modify suitable methodological tools for the valuation of such goods in techno-economic analyses of upgrading the quality of the environment. A variety of programmes have been designed and studied in this work, including the enhancing of urban environment, the protection and restoration of cultural heritage, noise pollution reduction, wetland restoration and port restoration. The diverse nature of these programmes necessitates the use of a versatile and easy – to – apply generalized methodology, readily adaptable to each case.

PPP Models Boosting Economic Development in SSA Nations

PPP Models Boosting Economic Development in SSA Nations

Huge assets have been lost by governments and local authorities because of failed public projects. Fundamental inspiration for utilizing PPPs in public projects is their capability to improve value for money (VfM) for shareholders. Principal political contention against PPPs is that privately-owned industries make benefits on public resources. Accompanying chapters present the PPP models, PPP effective experience of chosen nations, and the execution of PPP models in SSA nations in transport and ports, energy, water, health, agribusiness, education and housing sectors. Approaches to guarantee their positive effect on the value produced for the public in the various sectors are proposed. In transport projects, political responsibility by an intra-agency planning board of trustees accountable for contract building and shareholder commitment is required. In health projects, the choice of improving existing establishments is desirable over costly new establishments. In education to incorporate the most vulnerable and impeded communities is required. In energy ventures to meet social and environmental targets in the contract is required. In water projects, the capacity of the administrator to create benefits must be straightforwardly identified with performance. In housing projects relevant planning and execution guarantee high public value.

HARMONIC ECONOMI, INTRODUCTION (Monograph– II)

Harmonic Economi, Introduction (Monograph- II)

The article sets a task lying in the construction of harmonious economics metrics. The economics overcoming failures of one”sidedness in the assessment society development with an enforceability of many”sided consideration for social, humanitarian and intellectual factors being introduced. Meanwhile, the financial indicators, profit and capital criteria leave the foreground. The specificities of author’s approach lie in the use of natural analogs for calculation and assessment of economics including formation of the Values Added. The systems for determination of the Gross Domestic Product and national calculations are being transformed. These innovations are introduced instead of the existing systems. The algebra and system for calculation of economic and other indicators are renewed in order to implement basically new harmonious economics metrics. There is a separate level differentiating between the general political level of management and traditional macroeconomics referred to as supramacroeconomics. To make calculations the assessments of geometric values of natural analogs of the economics and social medium objects are being used. The methodical bases for harmonious economics metrics are developed in this article.

Тhe Newest Technologies of Economic And Social Development or Emerald Bowl (Monograph)

Тhe Newest Technologies of Economic and Social Development or Emerald Bowl (Monograph)

The actualization of a subject of this Article – Monograph was stipulated by aggravation of economic problems in the majority of countries in the world, including in the West. Today is the time of revelations as regards a deadlock of those development concepts that brought results as far back as the XX century. At present, there is a need for systemic reconsideration and critical analysis of the methods for management and company organization. Notwithstanding the transience of life carrying away and distracting from crucial issues the human society really gives rise to sense of insecurity of the future, stipulates changes taking place, generates contradictions and aggravates the problems of further growth. And all this is observed in, generally speaking, calm world without major confrontations and military operations taking place. The goals in life connected with consumerism and de-emphasis for cultural values dominating some time ago continue to be changed too. Their avoidance of participation in the creation of public domain is in evidence as well as a desire to evade taxes being observed in former times is also transferred to larger spheres, including the financial spheres, that is, the ones wherein the material benefits are not created in a general sense but grandiose money turnovers are carried out through them. This leads to enhanced parasitism of some spheres over the other against the background of abuses and corruption of various kinds that become mass. Therefore, the global financial crises and recessions come about with ever increasing frequency.