O Asilo da Infância Desvalida foi fundado em 28 de dezembro de 1858 – data da realização da festa dos Santos Inocentes da Igreja Católica – e funcionou com esta designação até 1971. O seu objetivo central era o de socorrer a pobreza desamparada dos “expostos” do sexo feminino, sendo a sua missão auxiliar jovens raparigas em situação de abandono ou de pobreza extrema. Esta organização, a funcionar numa lógica de residência comunitária, consistia, assim, numa instituição de acolhimento de crianças e jovens meninas desprotegidas. Este livro exibe várias fotografias, que constituem uma forma de comunicação visual enquanto elemento relevante na (re)construção da memória e de legimitização de uma organização. Esta obra tem sempre presente o facto de que nenhuma fotografia é neutra, ou seja, cada registo fotográfico apresentado é sempre uma representação da realidade.
Anthropology and Archaeology
Anthropology is the study of what makes us human. Anthropologists take a broad approach to understanding the many different aspects of the human experience, which we call holism. They consider the past, through archaeology, to see how human groups lived hundreds or thousands of years ago and what was important to them.
The study focused on the influence of leadership styles in Pentecostal churches with reference to Zimbabwe. There has not been a comprehensive study on leadership styles amongst Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe which extends the leadership theories developed for business organizations to church organizations. The mixed methods (pragmatic) approach was adopted in the study using both qualitative and quantitative data. It allows the researcher to use multiple methods, different worldviews and assumptions as well as different forms of data collection and analysis. The pragmatic approach is not committed to one system of philosophy and reality and it gives the researcher freedom of choice of methods, techniques and procedures of the research that best answers the research problem. The mixed methods was also adopted for triangulation purposes. A case study approach using exploratory and descriptive research designs was employed. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were the main data collection tools. Document analysis was also used as a triangulation method. Three main participant groups in this study were the founders of the church, the leaders of the church such as pastors, elders, deacons and departmental leaders and finally the members of the church. Six Pentecostal churches were identified using specified criteria in order to create boundaries. Analysis of data was guided by the grounded theory propounded by Glaser and Strauss (1967) using the Constant Comparative Method. In addition the Public and Hidden Transcripts Theory by Scott (1992) was used as a discourse analysis tool. The findings were divided into four main categories, the leadership styles, growth strategies, sustainability and succession plan in order to address the influence of leadership styles on growth among the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Under the leadership styles, the study sought to find out first the leadership styles of the founders or senior pastors of Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Overall the findings indicate that the transformational leadership style is the leadership style of founders of the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. The second part on leadership was to find out the leadership styles of leaders in which the democratic leadership style was the mostly practiced one. The final aspect was to identify the dominant leadership style within the Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. The supportive leadership style was found to be the dominant leadership style in Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe. Two models are presented as contribution to knowledge especially which can either be adapted or adopted by leaders in churches, business and management circles. The first model, the Ordinary-Questioning-Decision Making and Stability Model (OQDS) identifies the levels that people are at within the organisation (church). After that identification relevant leaders need to groom them using the Contextualised Leadership-Follower Model (CLF), in order to bring about loyalty and commitment.
Au Burkina, la production agricole est encore tributaire de la pluviométrie. C’est ainsi que des années de déficit alimentaire alternent avec celles des excédents en fonction des aléas climatiques. D’une manière générale le pays est de temps en temps déficitaire depuis la grande sécheresse des années 1973. Les populations sont soumises à des famines saisonnières. Régulièrement, 500 à 600 mille personnes sont menacées par la famine entre 1995 et 1997. Ce chiffre est passé à 800 mille pour l’année 1998. D’importantes percées ont pourtant été réalisées dans le domaine de la sécurité alimentaire. La production agricole par habitant (selon la FAO, 1996) serait passée de 180 kg dans les années 1960 à 300 kg dans les années 1990.
The traditional and informal sector was expected to disappear as the modern or formal sector grew and absorbed more labour in enhancing economic growth and development. But contrary to expectations, the informal sector and informal employment has continued to be a significant factor in our modern world gaining predominance (ILO, 2012; ILO, 2014). Many countries have not been able to develop a modern economy capable of providing adequate employment opportunities for their rapidly growing populations. With 53% of new employment generated in 2014, Nigeria’s informal sector, constituted by over 17 million businesses and enterprises, which led to the growth in total job creation within the period reflecting the significant contribution of that segment to the labour market and the overall economy (NBS, 2015). The informal sector remains a major source of employment, income generation and expansion of small and medium businesses in many countries of the world in which Nigeria is not an exemption. The informal sector consists of own account or small and medium enterprises with little or no formal organization or capital, and with casual employment.
When we talk about anthropological linguistics, the first thing we have in mind is the term “anthropology” aside from linguistics, of course. If we dwell on this “anthropology” term, what we have in mind is the word “culture”. Now, just what do we mean by “anthropology”? Yes, we know that you can immediately have a Google search for the answer. For the time being, we will settle on anthropology as the scientific study of man and lower animals. However, for our subject in Anthropological Linguistics, we’ll just focus on humanity, that is, about us being human. If we add culture to our being human, we’ll be humane, and this is very important. So let’s settle with this: Anthropological Linguistics is a subfield of Linguistics that deals with language in the anthropological point of view. This differs from Linguistic Anthropology which is a subfield of Anthropology along with Cultural Anthropology (or Ethnology), Social Anthropology, and Psychological Anthropology . We need not define what “Linguistics” is (scientific study of language) by the way, so we go directly to the marriage between the two: Anthropology + Linguistics = Anthropological Linguistics. Hey, for the record, though many “cultured” people would think of “Anthropological Linguistics” same as “Linguistic Anthropology”, we still maintain that they’re in a way different as “emotion” differs from “feelings”. For the sake of discussion, the first one (anthropological linguistics) describes “linguistics” as anthropological. The second one (linguistic anthropology) describes “anthropology” as linguistic. When personalities major in English (language), and not 10 anthropology, they settle for Anthropological Linguistics. Nevertheless, they are not to disregard “linguistic anthropology” right away because it is still linguistics. Well then, note that it is not a choice between a person who looks like a monkey and a monkey that looks like a person. We’re talking about the same person in two different attires at one time and another. It’s also like dealing with the difference between “Psychology of Language” and “Psycholinguistics”. Ever wonder what’s the “first love” of “Linguistics” before marrying “Anthropology” to have this “Anthropological Linguistics” union? It’s culture. Yes, we cannot just say “Cultural Linguistics” because we know for a fact that “culture” is also present in some other “married” disciplines like sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics
The estimation of the value of public goods is challenging for two reasons: (a) the classic methods of estimation are suitable for marketed goods and not for nonmarketed goods for which the supply – demand curve does not apply and (b) the variety and abstract nature of such goods cannot facilitate the quantization of any of their properties, whereas the good per se might not be perceived by the population that enjoy the benefit offered. This study presents an attempt to adapt and modify suitable methodological tools for the valuation of such goods in techno-economic analyses of upgrading the quality of the environment. A variety of programmes have been designed and studied in this work, including the enhancing of urban environment, the protection and restoration of cultural heritage, noise pollution reduction, wetland restoration and port restoration. The diverse nature of these programmes necessitates the use of a versatile and easy – to – apply generalized methodology, readily adaptable to each case.
A distinctive feature of the manufacturing sector in Kenya is the co-existence of the modern sector alongside a rapidly expanding informal sector. While the formal sector comprises mainly small, medium, and large-scale enterprises (i.e., firms employing more than 100 workers), the informal sector consists of numerous open-air small and microscale productive activities in towns and rural trading centres, usually employing less than five workers. Traditional artisan production in the informal sector is dominated by small undertakings employing less than 5 workers. A large proportion of these firms’ output is directed towards satisfying needs of consumer goods and services domestically. These include items such as clothing, furniture, foodstuffs and motor vehicle repairs. While data on this sub-sector is not easy to come by, there is little doubt from casual empiricism that it is one of the fastest growing sectors, and a major source of employment in the country (Ikiara, 1991, Republic of Kenya, 2007). It is equally clear that this sector has little or no impact on Kenyan manufactured exports, due mainly to the low quality of their products.